What has ‘Public health’ ever done for us ?

An apple a day might not keep the doctor away. But a good public health team can keep the doctors away for many people!

Public health is about prevention and promotion of health in the society.

Public health is largely responsible for the significant improvements in life expectancy over the last 150 years.

Providing people with clean drinking water, removal of rubbish from houses and streets, good sewage system, and vaccination has saved many millions of lives over the years.

The recent smoking ban in work-places, public places and indoor venues is a modern example of public health activity.

The one area where public health has not been hugely successful is obesity. It may be because of the reliance on nudging the individual to change rather than dealing with underlying structural problems.

Read my letter in BMJ and make your views known at the BMJ rapid response section.

Sundar S. Public health needs to go back to basics, not rely on nudge theory.

Toll-free link:
http://bmj.com/cgi/content/full/bmj.n1153?ijkey=CUQNozGH9yJeK57&keytype=ref

References:

BMJ. Lifestyle and socioeconomic group on health
Public health needs to go back to basics, not rely on nudge theory
BMJ 2021; 373 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n1153 (Published 06 May 2021)
Cite this as: BMJ 2021;373:n1153

BMJ. Short term impact of smoke-free legislation in England: retrospective analysis of hospital admissions for myocardial infarction
BMJ 2010; 340 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.c2161 (Published 08 June 2010)
Cite this as: BMJ 2010;340:c2161

BMJ. Associations of healthy lifestyle and socioeconomic status with mortality and incident cardiovascular disease: two prospective cohort studies
BMJ 2021; 373 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n604 (Published 14 April 2021)
Cite this as: BMJ 2021;373:n604

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you. The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with. The views expressed in this blog are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Would COVID-19 vaccination be made compulsory for people in some jobs !

New Zealand recently fired customs and border officials after they refused vaccines.

Compulsory COVID vaccination -for people in some jobs- is not official policy in UK or USA yet.

“Italy has become the first country in Europe to make COVID vaccination compulsory for healthcare workers”

It does look like that COVID-19 vaccination would be made compulsory for people in some jobs !

Any third wave, later year, in UK may push the government in making COVID vaccination mandatory for health workers and some other key workers.

References

Guardian. New Zealand fires nine border workers who refused Covid vaccine.
Tess McClure in Christchurch
@tessairini
Mon 3 May 2021 02.32 BST

BMJ. News Analysis. Covid-19: Is the UK heading towards mandatory vaccination of healthcare workers?
BMJ 2021; 373 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n1056 (Published 21 April 2021)
Cite this as: BMJ 2021;373:n1056

BMJ News. Covid-19: Italy makes vaccination mandatory for healthcare workers
BMJ 2021; 373 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n905 (Published 06 April 2021)
Cite this as: BMJ 2021;373:n905

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you. The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with. The views expressed in this blog are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

COVID-19 pandemic: India vs Israel

The contrast between India and Israel over this weekend is astonishing. (Gloom vs Cheer).

Israel reports “no new daily Covid-19 deaths for the first time in 10 months”.

India, on the other hand, reports, a record 2,624 deaths in the 24 hours and about one million infections in last three days alone.

The new wave in India seems to have been caused by emergence of new variants, as well as mass gatherings.

It maybe that the mass rapid vaccination drive in Israel helped.

Let’s hope that UK, Europe and USA are firmly on the path towards normality in the summer as the vaccination rates go up.

References

BBC news. Covid-19: Israel records no daily deaths for the first time in 10 months.

BBC news. India Covid surge: Hospitals send SOS as record deaths registered.

Guardian. CoronavirusWhat do we know about the Indian coronavirus variant?
Ian Sample Science editor
@iansample. Mon 19 Apr 2021 16.50 BST

BBC news. Covid vaccine: How many people in the UK have been vaccinated so far?
By The Visual and Data Journalism Team
BBC News

New York Times. Tracking Coronavirus Vaccinations Around the World.
By Josh HolderUpdated April 23, 2021.

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you. The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with. The views expressed in this blog are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Are COVID-19 vaccines necessary for someone who has recovered from a COVID-19 infection ?

Yes !

If someone has recovered from a COVID-19 infection, they would have some protection against getting another COVID-19 infection.

But, even if someone has recovered very well from a previous infection, vaccination is necessary because there is still a significant risk of getting COVID-19 infection again.

A recent study published in the medical journal Lancet reports that people who had a previous infection have about one-fifth risk of getting an infection again compared to those without a previous infection.

So while there is some protection against future infections, there is still a risk and hence it is prudent get the Vaccine when it is offered.

Reference:

Lancet. SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and subsequent infection risk in healthy young adults: a prospective cohort study. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00158-2

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you. The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with. The authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Are COVID-19 vaccines safe in cancer patients having immunotherapy?

Yes, Pfizer vaccine is safe.

A recent study published in the esteemed Lancet Oncology Journal shows that the vaccine is well tolerated in patients having immunotherapy.

Unlike cancer chemotherapy, immunotherapy works differently. It works by releasing the in-built brakes holding down the immune system thereby boosting the body’s immune system against cancer.

There has been some theoretical concerns whether this might lead to COVID vaccine causing more side effects.

Reassuringly, the Vaccine side effects were NO different from those seen in people not having immunotherapy. The Vaccine also did NOT increase the immunotherapy side effects.

Immunotherapy is increasingly used widely in treatment of cancer are often better tolerated than chemotherapy.

So the study is good news for tens of thousands of patients on immunotherapy and any cancer patient who has hesitated before, should seriously consider having the vaccine now

COVID infection could be very nasty in cancer patients and all evidence points to the benefits of vaccine far outweighing any risks from the Vaccine.

References

Short-term safety of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in patients with cancer treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors
The Lancet Oncology. Published: April 1, 2021
Barliz Waissengrin et al. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00155-8

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you. The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with. The authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Delays to the 2nd dose of COVID Vaccine can be harmful in cancer patients.

The Pfizer vaccine was tested in clinical trials with two doses given at 3 to 4 week interval.

But during Vaccination of the General population, the UK has taken a pragmatic view and delayed the 2nd Vaccine dose by up to 12 weeks.

A recent study suggests that this delay in administering 2nd Vaccine dose might put cancer patients at risk.

References

1. Guardian. Delaying second Pfizer dose leaves cancer patients at risk, say researchers
Covid vaccination policy review urged after study finds 12-week gap leaves patients vulnerable
.
PA Media
Thu 11 Mar 2021 16.40 GMT

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with. The authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Two New Vaccines against COVID-19

More good news on the vaccine front in the fight against the coronavirus.

Two new vaccines have reported positive results.

The NOVAVAX vaccine is first Vaccine to report efficacy against the new variants. It is 95.6% effective against the original strain of coronavirus.

NOVAVAX is 86% effective at protecting against the new UK variant, which is very reassuring. But the Vaccine is only, 60% effective against South African variant of the virus. The efficacy against Brazilian variant is unknown.

The Janssen vaccine, produced by the US giant Johnson & Johnson, is a single-dose vaccine and has proved 66% effective against Covid-19. The vaccine was just 57% effective in the South African part of the trial.

The reduction in efficacy of both vaccines against new variants is a bit worrying and indicates that if further new variants emerge in future, existing vaccines could be less effective and vaccines would need to be updated.

The Janssen vaccine uses a common cold virus and uses a approach similar to the Oxford Astra Zeneca Vaccine.

Novavax vaccine differs from existing vaccines and it uses a artificially produced COVID-19 spike protein, which is then assembled into nanoparticles to make them look like coronavirus.

Bloomberg: Covid Mutations Undercut Optimism Even as More Vaccines Near
By Robert Langreth
30 January 2021, 00:04 GMT
Updated on 30 January 2021, 12:02 GMT

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with. The authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Can Vaccines get us back to normal life again during autumn?

Possibly Yes, but not sooner than that.

Perhaps in later part of 2021, life can just approach some sort of normality in western countries with high uptake of vaccination.

There are many hurdles along the way.

The first problem is supply of Vaccines. There are limited initial supplies globally. It will take many months even for richer countries to get their full supply.

Secondly, Vaccines take many weeks to become very effective. In clinical trials, more than 90% effectiveness was noted for some Vaccines a few weeks after the second dose.

Millions in the UK are yet to receive the first dose. Lots of people would not get the second dose until 10-12 weeks after first dose. A UK minister predicts a September vaccination target for all adults.

So it will take time for the full Vaccine effect to kick in at both individual as well as society level.

Thirdly, there is a potential problem of “Vaccines hesitancy” in sections of the society. A significant minority of people have a unhealthy scepticism about Vaccines fuelled by misinformation on social media.

Fourthly, it has to be pointed out that “No Vaccine works perfectly”. A Vaccine does not offer 100% protection. The high efficacy rates noted in young healthy volunteers participating in various trials might not be observed in real world population, and efficacy rates might be lower in elderly people.

Finally, the most serious potential risk and hurdle would be loss of Vaccine efficacy if new variants of Coronavirus are not protected by existing Vaccines.

Keep the mask; a Vaccine won’t end the COVID-19 crisis right away !

References.

BBC. Will a vaccine give us our old lives back?
By the Visual Journalism Team.
14 January 2021

WSJ. Vaccines Are Coming but They Won’t End Covid-19 Anytime Soon. By Feliz Solomon
Dec. 13, 2020 8:00 am ET

Guardian. All adults in UK will be offered coronavirus vaccine by September.
Dominic Raab sets timescale and says ministers hope to ease lockdown restrictions in March.
Heather Stewart
Sun 17 Jan 2021 13.17 GMT

Guillain-Barré syndrome after vaccination in United States: data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Food and Drug Administration Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (1990-2005)
Nizar Souayah et al. J Clin Neuromuscul Dis. 2009 Sep.

Countering Vaccine Hesitancy. Kathryn M. Edwards, Jesse M. Hackell and THE COMMITTEE ON INFECTIOUS DISEASES, THE COMMITTEE ON PRACTICE AND AMBULATORY MEDICINE
Pediatrics September 2016, 138 (3) e20162146; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-2146

Guardian. Covid vaccine: 72% of black people unlikely to have jab, UK survey finds.
Linda Geddes
Sat 16 Jan 2021 07.00 GMT

CDC. New COVID-19 Variants.
Updated Jan. 15, 2021

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and the authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

A first COVID infection can make the body resistant to second infection for atleast five months

If someone had a COVID-19 Coronavirus infection and has recovered from it, then their body develops resistance to a further second infection

The protection is similar to that provided by vaccination. The UK study found that the protection lasts for atleast five months.

Caveats: It is not known how long the protection will last and the study is ongoing.

While a previously infected is protected against 2nd infection, that person can still carry and transmit virus to others. PHE reports that “early evidence from the next stage of the study suggests that some of these individuals carry high levels of virus and could continue to transmit the virus to others”. So the usual COVID-19 precautions are still needed.

The study involved healthcare workers from hospitals across the UK. The study recruited mainly Young and Middle age people ; it is not known whether the study findings would apply to older age people who are the most vulnerable.

The protection is not 100%. The protective effect was noted for only 83% . So there is still a chance someone who has recovered from the 1st infection might still get a 2nd infection.

The other big concern is “the risk of reinfection from the new Covid variants spotted in the UK, South Africa and Brazil”.

The study continues and more information would be available later this year ”

References:

PHE. Press release. Past COVID-19 infection provides some immunity but people may still carry and transmit virus
Study finds past coronavirus (COVID-19) infection provides some immunity for at least 5 months, but people may still carry and transmit the virus. Published 14 January 2021. Public Health England

Guardian Newspaper. Recovering from Covid gives similar level of protection to vaccine
PHE found immunity from earlier infection provided 83% protection against reinfection for at least 20 weeks.
Ian Sample Science editor. @iansample
Thu 14 Jan 2021 06.00

Daily Mail. Previous coronavirus infection gives people immunity for five months – MORE than the Oxford vaccine, PHE study finds. By Joe Pinkstone For Mailonline
00:01, 14 Jan 2021 , updated 11:54, 14 Jan 2021

Telegraph: Brazilian Covid variant may infect people who have recovered from virus
Scientists find new coronavirus strain has mutated to be more infectious and has changes that help it evade immune system
By Sarah Knapton,
SCIENCE EDITOR
14 January 2021 • 3:00pm

SIREN – SARS-COV2 immunity and reinfection evaluation; The impact of detectable anti SARS-COV2 antibody on the incidence of COVID-19 in healthcare workers.

SIREN protocol: Impact of detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 on the subsequent incidence of COVID-19 in 100,000 healthcare workers: do antibody positive healthcare workers have less reinfection than antibody negative healthcare workers?

BMJ: Covid-19: Past infection provides 83% protection for five months but may not stop transmission, study finds.
BMJ 2021; 372 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n124 (Published 14 January 2021)
Cite this as: BMJ 2021;372:n124

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and the authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Where can I find official detailed information about the three COVID vaccines (Pfizer, Astra Zeneca and Moderna)

You might have read information about the COVID vaccines on various news outlets and social media messages.

If you want complete summary information about vaccines approved by the regulatory authorities, click on the links below.

Two types of information leaflets accompany all licensed medicines.
– One is meant for health professionals and has lot of clinical information. (called SPC)
– The other is meant for patients and public and provides a summary of facts using lay terms.(called PIL).

The leaflets provide information about all common side effects observed in the trials.

Oxford Astra Zeneca: Professionals Version .

Oxford Astra Zeneca: Patient Version

Pfizer. Professionals Version

Pfizer. Patient Version

Moderna. Professionals Version

Moderna. Patient Version

FDA USA: Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine prescribing informationexternal

FDA USA: Moderna COVID-19 vaccine prescribing informationexternal

The above links reproduced below with longer titles and date of publication.

Please note when new significant information comes to light, the company and regulatory authorities are likely to update the information leaflets.

Oxford Vaccine : Information for Healthcare Professionals on COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca
Updated 7 January 2021.

Oxford Vaccine: MHRA. Information for UK recipients on COVID 19 Vaccine AstraZeneca
Updated 7 January 2021.

Pfizer Vaccine. MHRA. Information for Healthcare Professionals on Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine
Updated 31 December 2020

Pfizer Vaccine. MHRA. Information for UK recipients on Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine
Updated 31 December 2020

Moderna. MHRA. Information for Healthcare Professionals on COVID-19 Vaccine Moderna
Updated 8 January 2021.

Moderna. MHRA. Information for UK recipients on COVID-19 Vaccine Moderna
Updated 8 January 2021.

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and the authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

A third Vaccine approved for protection against COVID-19 Coronavirus infection

Pfizer Vaccine and Astra Zeneca/Oxford Vaccine were approved last month by the UK regulatory authorities.

Now the regulatory authorities have approved a third vaccine. The third vaccine from Moderna along with two other vaccines should help to bring the pandemic to an end.

The Moderna vaccine is a new technology like the Pfizer Vaccine. (based on mRNA technology).

Like the two vaccines, the short term data for Moderna vaccine is very encouraging.

Over long term, one hopes that the protective effect of all the three vaccines is long lasting and that they remain effective against any new variants of coronavirus that might emerge in the coming months.

Overall, there is certainly ‘light at end of the tunnel’ and the world can emerge out of this horrific pandemic in a short period.

BBC. Moderna becomes third Covid vaccine approved in the UK
By Michelle Roberts
Health editor, BBC News online

BBC.Covid-19: Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine judged safe for use in UK
By Michelle Roberts
Health editor, BBC News online
Published2 December 2020

BBC. Covid-19: Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine approved for use in UK
By James Gallagher and Nick Triggle
BBC News
Published30 December 2020

MHRA. Oxford University/AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine approved.

MHRA. Moderna vaccine becomes third COVID-19 vaccine approved by UK regulator.

MHRA. UK medicines regulator gives approval for first UK COVID-19 vaccine.

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and the authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

What is evidence for delaying the 2nd dose of COVID-19 ?

The UK has made a pragmatic decision based on limited available evidence to delay the second dose so that more people can get the vaccine.

While there is some evidence for the Oxford vaccine, there is scant public evidence in support of delaying the Pfizer vaccine.

A BMJ news article provides an excellent summary of the current evidence.

Only time will whether there are any major risks to this approach.

Reference: Covid-19 vaccination: What’s the evidence for extending the dosing interval? BMJ 2021; 372 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n18 (Published 06 January 2021). Cite this as: BMJ 2021;372:n18

Covid-19: Order to reschedule and delay second vaccine dose is “totally unfair,” says BMA
BMJ 2020; 371 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m4978 (Published 31 December 2020)
Cite this as: BMJ 2020;371:m4978

NHS. Letter to chief executives of all NHS trusts and foundation trusts. 30 Dec 2020. https://www.england.nhs.uk/coronavirus/wp-content/uploads/sites/52/2020/12/C0994-System-letter-COVID-19-vaccination-deployment-planning-30-December-2020.pdf.

NHS. Coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine. When the 2nd dose will be given.

Daily Mail. Pfizer warns there is NO proof its Covid jab works when doses are taken 12 weeks apart as UK regulator scraps 21-day rule in desperate attempt to get millions more vaccinated. By Connor Boyd Assistant Health Editor For Mailonline
14:52, 30 Dec 2020 , updated 16:58, 30 Dec 2020

Statement from the UK Chief Medical Officers on the prioritisation of first doses of COVID-19 vaccines. Joint clinical advice from the 4 UK Chief Medical Officers on the prioritisation of first doses of the coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccines. Published 30 December 2020.

Priority groups for coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccination: advice from the JCVI, 30 December 2020. Advice from the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) on the groups that should be prioritised for vaccination.

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and the authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Is the COVID-19 Coronavirus Vaccine mandatory for everyone?

NO, it is not mandatory. The Government is NOT making it compulsory for everyone to have the vaccination. You have to give voluntary consent for Vaccination.

No one is being forced to have the COVID-19 vaccines.

In fact, there is a huge queue of people waiting to have the vaccine. The NHS capacity is limited at present and the NHS is trying the best to give vaccination to those people who are very keen to have it.

So, if you don’t want to have it, no one will force you to have it.

Once the waiting list for vaccination is cleared in early 2021, there might be some changes . If clinical trials show that vaccinated people do not carry virus and pass it to others, then the Government might change its guidelines.

For instance, health professionals working with sick and vulnerable people might be asked to have the vaccine so that they don’t pass the virus to vulnerable people under their care.

But it’s very unlikely vaccination would be made mandatory for General Public.

References

(1). Guidance. COVID-19: the green book, chapter 14a. Coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccination information for public health professionals.

(2). Guidance. COVID-19 vaccination: guide for healthcare workers. Updated 15 December 2020

(3) Form. COVID-19 vaccination: consent form and letter for adults

(4). Coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccination consent forms.

(5). Guardian Newspaper. NHS doctors ‘scrabbling’ to get vaccine amid alarm at Covid variant. Many medics ‘frustrated’ about low priority given to frontline staff at high risk of infection. Denis Campbell Health policy editor
Sun 27 Dec 2020 20.46 GMT

(6). PHE. Guidance. Why you have to wait for your COVID-19 vaccine. Published 7 December 2020

(7). Guardian. Coronavirus. Spain will register people who refuse Covid vaccine, says health minister. Ashifa Kassam in Madrid. Tue 29 Dec 2020 14.33 GMT

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.