Do COVID vaccines cause heart inflammation?

Yes

COVID Vaccines have caused heart inflammation in a small minority of people.

But that does NOT mean Vaccines have to be avoided.

The benefits of vaccines are far higher than risk of side effects for vast majority of adult population.

People have not stopped traveling by car because of risk of road accidents. This is because benefits considerably outweigh the risks !

References

BBC news. Heart inflammation link to Pfizer and Moderna jabs
By James Gallagher
Health and science correspondent

BMJ. News Analysis.
Covid-19: Should we be worried about reports of myocarditis and pericarditis after mRNA vaccines?
BMJ 2021; 373 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n1635 (Published 24 June 2021)
Cite this as: BMJ 2021;373:n1635

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you. The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s personal views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is NOT previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation that the author is associated with. The views expressed in this blog are NOT, in way whatsoever, intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Would COVID Vaccination become mandatory for all adults ?

It is unlikely to become mandatory in most western countries. It almost certainly would not become mandatory in USA, where Vaccination seems to become tangled with highly divisive politics.

But it is not an impossible scenario in European countries.

It is possible that more countries would follow the example of Turkmenistan, which has a policy of “no jab, no job”

Also, it does not have to a direct government policy.

If the governments change the law to allow businesses to demand vaccination proof, then indirectly vaccination becomes mandatory for most people.

Private Businesses and Travel industry may decide to make vaccination mandatory for their employees and customers so as to avoid further disruption to their business.

In countries, such as Israel and U.K., where there is already high uptake of vaccination, a change in Law may not be needed at present.

But if the present surge in infections continue, and variants emerge, Governments may change their approach.

References

BMJ. Covid-19: Turkmenistan becomes first country to make vaccination mandatory for all adults
BMJ 2021; 374 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n1766 (Published 12 July 2021)
Cite this as: BMJ 2021;374:n1766

Daily Mail. Get ready for Covid jab passports at busy pubs that don’t do enough to tackle infections, warns Boris Johnson. By Daniel Martin Policy Editor For The Daily Mail
23:54, 12 Jul 2021 , updated 01:47, 13 Jul 2021

Daily Mail. Pingdemic pandemonium! Chaos at airports and on the railways as key workers are ordered to go into self-isolation by controversial app. By David Churchill, Transport Correspondent For The Daily Mail
23:51, 12 Jul 2021 , updated 23:59, 12 Jul 2021

Daily Mail. It IS full steam ahead on freedom day: Boris Johnson puts faith in the public’s common sense on July 19 – even though some doctors and scientists want to delay it. By Glen Owen and Anna Mikhailova For The Mail On Sunday
22:00, 10 Jul 2021 , updated 01:52, 11 Jul 2021

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you. The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s personal views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is NOT previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation that the author is associated with. The views expressed in this blog are NOT, in way whatsoever, intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Would we be having a third dose of COVID-19 Vaccine as a Booster ?

Yes, it is a possibility that a third booster dose of COVID vaccine would be offered later this year.

Vaccination has been tremendously successful so far. But it is too early to declare victory against the virus.

Data from Israel indicates that the current Pfizer vaccine, although still highly active, offers less protection against delta variant.

In June, the vaccine was found to be just 64 percent effective in preventing coronavirus infection whereas during May, when the delta strain was less prevalent, the vaccine was 94.3% effective.

So if more variants emerge, then vaccine boosters may be particularly needed for the vulnerable people.

References

Ministry data said to show Pfizer shot blocks majority of serious Delta cases. Figures reportedly indicate vaccine less effective against contagion from variant, but hospitalizations remain low; officials said weighing use of Moderna for 2nd dose for over 18s. By AMY SPIRO
Today, 10:23 am

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you. The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation that the author is associated with. The views expressed in this blog are not, in way whatsoever, intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Should you elect to wear masks when restrictions are lifted ?

U.K. is on course to lift almost all COVID restrictions in mid July 2021.

A U.K. minister has said that “wearing masks” would become a personal choice.

Just because there is a choice, it does not mean it is always good for you.

Government decisions are often made not only with scientific facts but also with economic and political considerations. Compulsory masks may not be liked by a section of society and Government has to take that into account in a democratic society.

Personally electing to wear masks in crowded public places could be sensible for the following reasons.

– There is some debate about the extent of protection a person gets wearing masks following the Danish mask study. But no robust scientific study has shown significant harm from wearing masks. So it is better to be safe and wear masks even if the extent of protection is debatable.

Infections are rising now and luckily, vaccines seem to have protected most people from getting severe COVID. But Vaccines are not 100% effective. Moreover, when infection rates go up further and society opens up more, there is a risk of variants emerging that may be partially vaccine resistant. So wearing masks may provide some protection.

– Not all people get poorly when they get COVID. But these people with COVID can still pass infection to other vulnerable family members and people who don’t have the protection from vaccines. So wearing a mask can stop people with mild COVID from spreading the infection to others.

– Some people do not want to wear masks because they think they are not at risk of death or hospitalisation. Remember, COVID related problems affect different people in different ways. Lot of people do recover from COVID without major problems. But some people do develop long-term symptoms from COVID. So it is better to wear masks for COVID protection.

References

1. BBC news. Covid-19: Masks will become personal choice, says Robert Jenrick
By Emma Harrison & Kathryn Snowdon
BBC News

2. Bloomberg. Face Masks in England to Become ‘Matter of Personal Choice’
By Andrew Atkinson
4 July 2021, 09:47 BST
Updated on 4 July 2021, 11:14 BST

3. Daily Mail. SAJID JAVID: The economic arguments for opening up Britain are well known. But, for me, the health case is equally compelling. By Sajid Javid For The Mail On Sunday 22:02, 03 Jul 2021 , updated 23:13, 03 Jul 2021

4. BBC news. Covid-19 in the UK: How many coronavirus cases are there in my area?
By The Visual and Data Journalism Team
BBC News

5. Daily Mail. Face masks do NOT protect the wearer from coronavirus, but will stop them from infecting other people, Danish study finds. By Mary Kekatos Senior Health Reporter For Dailymail.com and Reuters
15:26, 18 Nov 2020 , updated 18:02, 20 Nov 2020

6. BMJ. Danish mask study: masks, media, fact checkers, and the interpretation of scientific evidence. BMJ 2020; 371 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m4919 (Published 23 December 2020)
Cite this as: BMJ 2020;371:m4919

7. NICE. COVID-19 rapid guideline: managing the long-term effects of COVID-19
NICE guideline [NG188] Published: 18 December 2020

8. Coronavirus: When can we stop wearing face masks or coverings?
By Michelle Roberts
Health editor, BBC News online

9. Science. Implications of defective immune responses in SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated organ transplant recipients. Peter S. Heeger, Christian P. Larsen, Dorry L. Segev

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you. The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation that the author is associated with. The views expressed in this blog are not, in way whatsoever, intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Is Aspirin useful for COVID-19 ?

No

Many drugs, which are commonly used for other diseases, have been tried in COVID

Aspirin was also tested and it was NOT helpful

Covid-19: Aspirin does not improve survival for patients admitted to hospital, trial reports
BMJ 2021; 373
doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n1475 (Published 08 June 2021)
Cite this as: BMJ 2021;373:n1475

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you. The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation that the author is associated with. The views expressed in this blog are not, in way whatsoever, intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Do face masks prevent COVID illness ?

Yes, good masks may help to reduce infections that are spread by airborne particles.

But not all masks are the same.

Cloth masks were promoted during 2020 when the proper surgical masks were in short supply . The effectiveness of cloth masks are not well studied and they are of varying quality depending who made them and how well they were made.

Properly manufactured surgical masks are better than home made cloth masks. But how much protection they can offer is a matter of scientific debate. Surgical masks have been found to give some protection against other respiratory viruses in past. But a recent Danish study found no significant benefit against COVID among the general public.

The high quality FFP3 masks which filter most of the inhaled air is superior to normal surgical masks. A recent study from Cambridge found that Heath care workers who used FFP3 masks had better protection from COVID compared to normal surgical masks in the Hospital.

Overall, clean, well manufactured masks are likely to of some benefit to the public rather than wearing no masks at all. In the hospital setting, FFP3 masks seem to provide superior protection to Health care staff working with COVID patients.

And most importantly people have to understand that masks are not to be used alone. Masks got to be used along with protective measures such as social distancing and Hand-washing.

References

CLOTH MASKS

BMJ. Covid-19: What is the evidence for cloth masks? BMJ 2020; 369 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1422 (Published 07 April 2020)
Cite this as: BMJ 2020;369:m1422

DANISH STUDY- SURGICAL MASKS

Effectiveness of Adding a Mask Recommendation to Other Public Health Measures to Prevent SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Danish Mask Wearers : A Randomized Controlled Trial
Henning Bundgaard et al. Ann Intern Med. 2021 Mar.

BMJ. Danish mask study: masks, media, fact checkers, and the interpretation of scientific evidence. BMJ 2020; 371 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m4919 (Published 23 December 2020)
Cite this as: BMJ 2020;371:m4919

BMJ. The curious case of the Danish mask study
BMJ 2020; 371
doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m4586 (Published 26 November 2020)
Cite this as: BMJ 2020;371:m4586

Daily Mail. Face masks do NOT protect the wearer from coronavirus, but will stop them from infecting other people, Danish study finds. By Mary Kekatos Senior Health Reporter For Dailymail.com and Reuters
15:26, 18 Nov 2020 , updated 18:02, 20 Nov 2020

Spectator (magazine) https://www.spectator.co.uk/article/do-masks-stop-the-spread-of-covid-19-

Full fact.org. Danish study on mask efficacy only tells us half the story. 24 NOVEMBER 2020

Forbes. Lead Researcher Behind Controversial Danish Study Says You Should Still Wear A Mask
Leah Rosenbaum. Forbes Staff 18 Nov 2020. Critics of mask-wearing policies used a Danishstudy on mask-wearing to bolster their claims such policies are ineffective, but scientists, including those involved with the study, disagree.

JAMA Insights
February 10, 2021
Effectiveness of Mask Wearing to Control Community Spread of SARS-CoV-2
John T. Brooks, MD1; Jay C. Butler, MD1
Author Affiliations
JAMA. 2021;325(10):998-999. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.1505

CAMBRIDGE REPORT ON HIGH QUALITY MASKS

BMJ. Covid-19: Upgrading to FFP3 respirators cuts infection risk, research finds
BMJ 2021; 373 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n1663 (Published 29 June 2021)
Cite this as: BMJ 2021;373:n1663. https://www.bmj.com/content/373/bmj.n1663

BBC news. Covid: Masks upgrade cuts infection risk, research finds
By David Shukman
Science editor

Guardian. Cambridge hospital’s mask upgrade appears to eliminate Covid risk to staff
Hospital infection study shows use of FFP3 respirators at Addenbrooke’s ‘may have cut ward-based infection to zero’
Nicola Davis and Denis Campbell
Tue 29 Jun 2021 10.49 BST

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you. The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation that the author is associated with. The views expressed in this blog are not, in way whatsoever, intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Should we continue to wear masks and be cautious in public places after July 19th ?

Yes, we should be cautious after the freedom day on July 19th and this is for the following reasons.

1. Vaccines are highly effective but they are NOT 100% effective.

2. Two doses are needed for full protection. Even though, more than two third of adults have had atleast one vaccine, only about half the U.K. population had double vaccination so far.

3. Vaccine Protection against New COVID variants may NOT be as good as it is now. For instance , vaccines are slightly less effective against the delta variant particularly after first dose.

4. Vaccine protection may decrease over time and Vaccines may not give the same level of protection as months pass by.

4. Being cautious now, may helps us to avoid lockdowns during Autumn and would help to save Christmas !

Of course, some people may feel strongly against any compulsory restrictions and hence it should not be made compulsory.

People, who are comfortable at being cautious, can try to wear masks and practice as much social distancing as possible in public places.

References

BBC News. Covid-19: End of England’s Covid rules still set for 19 July
By Hazel Shearing
BBC News

Daily Mail. Freedom Day ‘will see virtually ALL Covid curbs axed’: Ministers prepare full unlocking on July 19 with masks, social distancing and work from home advice dropped to save shattered businesses – but date will NOT be brought forward. By James Tapsfield, Political Editor For Mailonline
08:29, 23 Jun 2021 , updated 14:52, 23 Jun 2021

Daily Mail. Now Jacob Rees-Mogg joins the calls to DITCH masks as soon as restrictions are lifted: Three Cabinet members break ranks to urge PM to ditch face coverings amid calls for clarity. By Jack Maidment, Deputy Political Editor For Mailonline and James Tapsfield Political Editor For Mailonline
17:40, 24 Jun 2021 , updated 19:56, 24 Jun 2021

Guardian. Vaccines are not magic bullets – we’ll still have to take precautions
Zania Stamataki
To make the most of England’s vaccination rollout we may need to keep wearing masks even after restrictions are lifted
Dr Zania Sta. Tue 22 Jun 2021 06.00 BST

Public Health England. Press release
Vaccines highly effective against hospitalisation from Delta variant
New analysis by PHE shows for the first time that 2 doses of COVID-19 vaccines are highly effective against hospitalisation from the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant. Published 14 June 2021

Public Health England (page 39).
Investigation of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern: technical briefings
Technical briefing documents on novel SARS-CoV-2 variants.
Last updated
25 June 2021

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Immune responses and immunity to SARS-CoV-2.
(last update 18 May 2021)

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you. The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation that the author is associated with. The views expressed in this blog are not, in way whatsoever, intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Was the Kent variant more dangerous than the original Wuhan variant ?

Yes, the Kent variant who got a foothold in December was far more dangerous.

A recent study in BMJ reports that “the risk of hospital admission is higher” for people infected with the Kent variant compared with the original wild-type Wuhan variant of Coronavirus.

This higher severity seems to be specific to adults older than 30 years.

The current variant spreading in U.K. (delta a.k.a Indian variant) may not cause widespread havoc, like the Kent variant, due to the lock down and wide spread vaccination.

One has to hope that we do not get any variants that breaks the protective shield of COVID vaccines.

BMJ Risk of hospital admission for patients with SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.7: cohort analysis
BMJ 2021; 373 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n1412 (Published 15 June 2021)
Cite this as: BMJ 2021;373:n1412

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you. The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation that the author is associated with. The views expressed in this blog are not, in way whatsoever, intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Do people in U.K. trust the COVID vaccines?

Yes, a very high percentage of U.K. people trust the COVID-19 vaccines.

A recent report in BBC says that U.K. is the most trusting nation with regards to COVID-19 vaccines.

The survey found that 87% of survey respondents in U.K. had faith in the COVID jab.

This survey involved more than 68,000 people and hence the results are highly reliable.

This high level of faith is certainly helping the U.K. Government as it rolls out vaccines for most of adult population.

The U.K. Government, in particular, the “Public Health England” deserves credit for keeping the U.K. people well informed.

References :

BBC News. UK ‘most trusting’ country on Covid vaccines

BBC News. Covid-19: More than half of UK adults have had second jab. By Dulcie Lee

NATURE Journal. News.
Trust in COVID vaccines is growing. 10 February 2021

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you. The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation that the author is associated with. The views expressed in this blog are not, in way whatsoever, intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Are many NHS staff reluctant to have COVID-19 vaccines?

No !

Vast majority of health care workers already had the COVID vaccine. Only a small minority have vaccine hestitancy.

A recent study found that about 90% of staff had at least one dose of the vaccine within 2 months of vaccine roll out. That is very impressive.

This study ( published in Lancet Journal) found that vaccines are very effective in reducing infections.

But the study also showed what we know already. Vaccination does not give 100% protection.

Everyone, in particular, health care staff need to continue with other COVID precautions such as masks, distancing and regular washing as advised by Government.

Reference: COVID-19 vaccine coverage in health-care workers in England and effectiveness of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine against infection (SIREN): a prospective, multicentre, cohort study. Published:April 23, 2021 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00790-X

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you. The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation that the author is associated with. The views expressed in this blog are not, in way whatsoever, intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Should NHS staff be forced to have COVID-19 vaccines?

U.K. Government vaccine minister announced over weekend that compulsory COVID vaccinations are being considered for NHS staff.

Majority of NHS staff believe in the vaccine and so it is not an issue for most NHS staff. But a small minority of staff are either sceptical or they have some other reasons why they were not able to have the vaccine.

Should those NHS staff be forced to have COVID-19 vaccines?

It is a tough question. Compulsory vaccines have caused huge backlash in past among the general population as well as among some in medical profession.

On the other hand, Vaccination against Hepatitis is already mandatory for NHS surgeons and this is not a new thing.

The vaccination of staff is not only for personal protection but also to prevent NHS staff spreading infection to vulnerable patients.

For instance, many patients recently caught COVID in hospitals. Both Guardian and Daily Mail report that up to 8,700 patients died after catching Covid in English hospitals.

Usually, NHS workers as individuals are allowed to make their own choice particularly with regards to annual flu vaccines.

But during this pandemic, NHS has to balance individual choice against the greater good to the population.

There are no easy answers !

References

Metro. Covid vaccine could become compulsory for NHS staff.

Daily Mail. Jabs for jobs: NHS workers will be legally required to have Covid vaccinations under new plans with up to one in five health staff in some areas still unvaccinated. By William Cole For Mailonline
15:36, 30 May 2021 , updated 17:38, 30 May 2021

RCN. RCN position on mandating vaccination for health and social care staff. 15 April 2021.

BBC news. The anti-vaccination movement that gripped Victorian England
By Greig Watson
BBC News
Published 28 December 2019.

Anti-compulsory vaccination league. Br Med J 1867;1:264–73. doi: https://10.1136/bmj.1.323.264

BMJ. COMPULSORY VACCINATION
Association Medical Journal 1853; s3-1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.s3-1.10.224-a (Published 11 March 1853)
Cite this as: Association Medical Journal 1853;s3-1:224

Guardian. Up to 8,700 patients died after catching Covid in English hospitals.
Denis Campbell and Anna Bawden
Mon 24 May 2021 17.50 BST

Daily Mail. Nearly 9,000 patients died after catching Covid on English hospital wards while being treated for something else. By Connor Boyd Assistant Health Editor For Mailonline
19:00, 24 May 2021 , updated 19:06, 24 May 2021

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you. The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation that the author is associated with. The views expressed in this blog are not, in way whatsoever, intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Have People died after COVID-19 vaccines ?

Yes, people have died after having COVID-19 vaccines.

Recently, a BBC Radio Newcastle presenter, Lisa Shaw was reported to have died after the Astra Zeneca COVID vaccine. Her family is blaming the COVID vaccine for causing clots and ultimately her death.

In India, a Popular Tamil actor and comedian died within 48 hours of receiving a COVID vaccine. His vaccination was broadcast live on TV to encourage public uptake of vaccination but his unfortunate death after vaccination probably ended up causing vaccine hesitancy in some people.

A news article in BMJ reports that the “Pfizer-covid-19 vaccine is “likely” to have been responsible for at least 10 deaths of frail elderly people in nursing homes in Norway”.

But, the most important thing to remember is that deaths are rare after COVID-19 vaccines.

Yes, there are true distressing accounts of vaccine side effects. But what you do not hear is the benefit most people have from vaccines.

Millions of people received vaccines so far with vast majority having no major side effects.

Consider this for context. Think about plane accidents. Millions of people travel by plane without any problems. If People fly safely and reach their destination, it is not headline news. People do not go around saying that they have traveled safely by plane and that they are alive !

But a aeroplane accident which happens rarely is front page news. It would be all over the 24 hour TV news channels across the world. Plane accidents are utterly and unimaginably devastating for those individuals and families involved. But the rare plane accidents do not make most other people avoid flying. The accidents do not mean that no one should travel by plane. The travel by planes has far more benefits than risks for majority of population.

Same with COVID vaccines. Serous Side effects are headline news even if they are very uncommon and rare. The available data indicate benefits are much greater than risks.

So think carefully before you refuse a vaccine.

References

Guardian. Lisa Shaw death: BBC presenter had blood clots after AstraZeneca jab, family says
(Radio Newcastle broadcaster had severe headaches a week after vaccine and fell seriously ill days later, relatives say).
Lisa Shaw
Lucy Campbell
Thu 27 May 2021 18.36 BST

BMJ. News. Covid-19: Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is “likely” responsible for deaths of some elderly patients, Norwegian review finds
BMJ 2021; 373 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n1372 (Published 27 May 2021)
Cite this as: BMJ 2021;373:n1372

BMJ. Research. Effectiveness of the Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines on covid-19 related symptoms, hospital admissions, and mortality in older adults in England: test negative case-control study
BMJ 2021; 373 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n1088 (Published 13 May 2021)
Cite this as: BMJ 2021;373:n1088

BMJ. News. Covid-19: Risk of cerebral blood clots from disease is 10 times that from vaccination, study finds
BMJ 2021; 373 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n1005 (Published 16 April 2021)
Cite this as: BMJ 2021;373:n1005

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you. The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation that the author is associated with. The views expressed in this blog are not, in way whatsoever, intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

U.K. approach to vaccination proven to be the right one. Is it Luck or Foresight?

UK government wanted as many people have “some” degree of protection against the COVID-19 rather a only few people having “full” protection against COVID-19.

A recent paper published in BMJ validates the U.K. approach even though it was initially criticised by WHO ( world health organisation)..

Is it Luck or Foresight that U.K. Govt got it right? Probably both but more foresight than luck. Perhaps a cappuccino cup of foresight sprinkled with chocolate of luck.

Guardian. No data to support UK delay of vaccines’ second dose, says WHO.
Sarah Boseley Health editor
Tue 5 Jan 2021 19.48 GMT

Daily Mail. UK should feel ‘vindicated’ over its ‘brave’ decision to delay second doses of Covid vaccines, World Health Organization official says. By Sam Blanchard Deputy Health Editor For Mailonline. 13:29, 08 Feb 2021 , updated 15:03, 08 Feb 2021

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you. The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with. The views expressed in this blog are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

How effective are the COVID vaccines against the new Indian variant?

Everyone in U.K. hoped that we have turned the corner with this pandemic after the recent spike in infection from the Kent Variant,

But now comes the Variant from India. (the scientific name is B1.617.2 variant of concern).

The Indian variant appears to be more transmissible but no evidence yet that the Indian variant is inherently more deadly than the Kent variant.

Naturally, we are in a better place now than last year because of the vaccination.

But there is some evidence that spontaneous changes (mutations) in the B.1.617.2 variant virus may make it partially resistant to antibodies produced by vaccines.

So how effective are the current vaccines against this Variant from India?

Lab testing shows that the current vaccines can be still effective against the Indian variant but may not be highly effective as it is against the Kent/U.K. variant.

PHE data shows that after two doses, Pfizer vaccine is 88% effective against Indian variant compared to 93% effectiveness against the Kent strain.

After two doses, AstraZeneca jab is 60% effective against Indian variant compared to 66% effectiveness against the Kent variant.

But after the first dose, both vaccines were only 33% effective against Indian variant compared to around 50% efficacy against the Kent strain.

The vaccine protection is better with two doses of vaccine and that’s why the Govt is speeding up second vaccine dose in affected areas.

Fingers crossed, hope this strategy works !

References

BMJ. Covid-19: Caution urged while lockdown eases in England because of vaccine success
BMJ 2021; 373 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n1203 (Published 11 May 2021)
Cite this as: BMJ 2021;373:n1203

BMJ News Covid-19: UK cases of variant from India rise by 160% in a week
BMJ 2021; 373 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n1315 (Published 21 May 2021)
Cite this as: BMJ 2021;373:n1315

U.K. Govt. Most vulnerable offered second dose of COVID-19 vaccine earlier to help protect against variants. From: Department of Health and Social Care. Published 14 May 2021

Telegraph: Two doses of AstraZeneca vaccine provide over 80 per cent protection against Indian variant, PHE study finds.

Guardian. India Covid variant: is it a threat to the UK’s reopening plans?
Ian Sample Science editor
@iansample
Fri 14 May 2021 11.19 BST

Daily Mail. UK is in a ‘very good position’ against Covid variants as Pfizer says there is NO proof current jab needs updating to fight mutant strains. By Luke Andrews Health Reporter For Mailonline
16:30, 10 May 2021 , updated 18:12, 10 May 2021

Daily Mail. How deadly is India’s Covid variant and is it REALLY behind explosion of cases? Scientists say ‘perfect storm’ fuelled nation’s crisis and mutant strain just had a ‘head-start’ – as study shows vaccines DO work against it. By Connor Boyd Assistant Health Editor For Mailonline
16:26, 27 Apr 2021 , updated 08:17, 28 Apr 2021

Collier, DA et al. SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 sensitivity to mRNA vaccine-elicited antibodies. Nature; 11 March 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03412-7

BBC. What is the India Covid variant and will vaccines work?
Soutik Biswas
India correspondent

BBC. Covid: Increasing confidence jabs work against Indian variant
By Doug Faulkner
BBC News

ONS. Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey, UK: 21 May 2021 (“early signs of a potential increase in the week ending 15 May 2021”)

BBC. Covid: Pfizer and AstraZeneca jabs effective against Indian variant – study
By Dulcie Lee
BBC News

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you. The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation that the author is associated with. The views expressed in this blog are not, in way whatsoever, intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Here we go again – another new variant that can derail the plans to return to normality in U.K.

The UK is coming out of lockdown and the infection rates, hospital admissions and deaths are reassuringly low.

The vaccination rates are rapidly going up and understandably many people are hoping for some sort of normality very soon.

But a new variant has been detected across the country. The scientists are worried about this new variant of coronavirus- called India variant. This variant can derail government plans in UK.

The current vaccines seem to offer somewhat less protection against this new variant . If this variant takes a strong foothold in UK , then we have to wait a bit longer for normality.

References:

Guardian: India Covid variant: is it a threat to the UK’s reopening plans?
Ian Sample Science editor
@iansample
Thu 13 May 2021 15.35 BST

BBC. Covid: Three cases of Indian variant found in Leicester
Published 28 April.

BBC. Covid: Targeted testing in Nottingham after Indian variant rise. 11 May.

BBC. Covid: Boris Johnson ‘anxious’ about Indian variant
By Hazel Shearing & Joseph Lee
BBC News. 13 May.

BBC. Covid vaccine: How many people in the UK have been vaccinated so far?
By The Visual and Data Journalism Team
BBC News

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you. The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with. The views expressed in this blog are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Can unauthorised treatments cause harm?

Yes, there is a risk of serious harm from “unauthorised” COVID treatments that are not officially authorised by competent regulatory authorities such as MHRA in UK or FDA in USA.

If a treatment is not authorised, it should have at least have good clinical trial evidence.

India is going to a rough patch. People with COVID are desperate for treatment. There is shortage of oxygen which is a commonly used treatment.

Apart from oxygen for respiratory support, only Two treatments have been proven to be of significant help in COVID-19 pneumonia. (1) Steroids (2) An arthritis drug called Tocilizumab

Many antivirals drugs have not shown any meaningful benefit. Various other drugs are still in trials.

It is rapidly evolving area and the BMJ has a COVID guideline which is being frequently updated during this pandemic.

This is significant risk of harm from drugs which are NOT properly assessed in clinical trials.

Anecdotally there has been lot of sudden deaths in India. Lot of unproven treatments such as Azithromycin, ivermectin, antivirals agents, chloroquine, and other agents widely used in india.

Although there is no definitive proof, One cannot help wondering whether poor outcome in at least some Indian patients is related to combinations of unproven drugs that are used widely in unregulated private healthcare sector.

BMJ. Drug treatments for covid-19: living systematic review and network meta-analysis
BMJ 2020; 370 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2980 (Published 30 July 2020)
Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m2980

BMJ. A living WHO guideline on drugs for covid-19 BMJ 2020; 370 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m3379 (Published 04 September 2020).

BMJ COVID-19 Treatment algorithm.

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you. The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with. The views expressed in this blog are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Are COVID-19 vaccines necessary for someone who has recovered from a COVID-19 infection ?

Yes !

If someone has recovered from a COVID-19 infection, they would have some protection against getting another COVID-19 infection.

But, even if someone has recovered very well from a previous infection, vaccination is necessary because there is still a significant risk of getting COVID-19 infection again.

A recent study published in the medical journal Lancet reports that people who had a previous infection have about one-fifth risk of getting an infection again compared to those without a previous infection.

So while there is some protection against future infections, there is still a risk and hence it is prudent get the Vaccine when it is offered.

Reference:

Lancet. SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and subsequent infection risk in healthy young adults: a prospective cohort study. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00158-2

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you. The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with. The authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

COVID-19 infection affects brain and mental health

A recent paper published in Lancet Psychiatry reports that at least 1 in 3 patients , who have recovered from severe COVID, have substantial neurological and psychiatric problems during the next six months .

This report is very worrying .

If study findings are confirmed by other studies, this would be yet another substantial reason to consider getting the vaccine as soon as it is offered.

References

Guardian. One in three survivors of severe Covid diagnosed with mental health condition
Study finds 34% developed psychiatric or neurological conditions after six months
.
Sarah Marsh
@sloumarsh
Wed 7 Apr 2021 06.00 BST

BMJ. Covid-19: One in three has neurological or psychiatric condition diagnosed after covid infection, study finds
BMJ 2021; 373 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n908 (Published 07 April 2021)
Cite this as: BMJ 2021;373:n908

Taquet M, Geddes JR, Husain M, Luciano S, Harrison PJ. 6-month neurological and psychiatric outcomes in 236379 survivors of COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study using electronic health records. Lancet Psychiatry 2021 (published online 6 Apr). doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(21)00084-5. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanpsy/article/PIIS2215-0366(21)00084-5/fulltext.

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you. The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with. The authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Are COVID-19 vaccines safe in cancer patients having immunotherapy?

Yes, Pfizer vaccine is safe.

A recent study published in the esteemed Lancet Oncology Journal shows that the vaccine is well tolerated in patients having immunotherapy.

Unlike cancer chemotherapy, immunotherapy works differently. It works by releasing the in-built brakes holding down the immune system thereby boosting the body’s immune system against cancer.

There has been some theoretical concerns whether this might lead to COVID vaccine causing more side effects.

Reassuringly, the Vaccine side effects were NO different from those seen in people not having immunotherapy. The Vaccine also did NOT increase the immunotherapy side effects.

Immunotherapy is increasingly used widely in treatment of cancer are often better tolerated than chemotherapy.

So the study is good news for tens of thousands of patients on immunotherapy and any cancer patient who has hesitated before, should seriously consider having the vaccine now

COVID infection could be very nasty in cancer patients and all evidence points to the benefits of vaccine far outweighing any risks from the Vaccine.

References

Short-term safety of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in patients with cancer treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors
The Lancet Oncology. Published: April 1, 2021
Barliz Waissengrin et al. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00155-8

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you. The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with. The authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

COVID pandemic: finally, the end is in sight !

The latest good news about Oxford vaccine is hugely encouraging and denotes the end of pandemic is in sight.

The latest positive results show that even a single dose of the vaccine is highly effective.

The vaccine offered 76% effective protection from a single dose for three months”. This validates the UK decision to prioritise first dose of the vaccine and delay the second dose of booster vaccine.

Most importantly the Vaccine was shown to reduce spread of the virus causing the COVID.

It is the first time a vaccine has been shown to reduce transmission of the virus

If all the vaccines now in use continue to be safe and highly effective in real world population, then it is only a matter of months before the pandemic comes to an end and normal life returns in 2021 !

A separate study also reports very positive news. The study reports that 9 out of 10 people who had an actual COVID infection will have protective antibodies for at least six months.

Vaccines work by tricking the body into thinking that there is a real infection and hence the body produces antibodies. So this study indirectly indicates the protection from vaccines will also last longer and yet another reason to be hopeful about the end of pandemic in 2021.

BBC news. Covid-19: Study showing Oxford vaccine slows virus spread ‘superb’ – Hancock.

BBC news: Covid: Antibodies last at least six months in most.
By Rachel Schraer
BBC Health reporter

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with. The authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Two New Vaccines against COVID-19

More good news on the vaccine front in the fight against the coronavirus.

Two new vaccines have reported positive results.

The NOVAVAX vaccine is first Vaccine to report efficacy against the new variants. It is 95.6% effective against the original strain of coronavirus.

NOVAVAX is 86% effective at protecting against the new UK variant, which is very reassuring. But the Vaccine is only, 60% effective against South African variant of the virus. The efficacy against Brazilian variant is unknown.

The Janssen vaccine, produced by the US giant Johnson & Johnson, is a single-dose vaccine and has proved 66% effective against Covid-19. The vaccine was just 57% effective in the South African part of the trial.

The reduction in efficacy of both vaccines against new variants is a bit worrying and indicates that if further new variants emerge in future, existing vaccines could be less effective and vaccines would need to be updated.

The Janssen vaccine uses a common cold virus and uses a approach similar to the Oxford Astra Zeneca Vaccine.

Novavax vaccine differs from existing vaccines and it uses a artificially produced COVID-19 spike protein, which is then assembled into nanoparticles to make them look like coronavirus.

Bloomberg: Covid Mutations Undercut Optimism Even as More Vaccines Near
By Robert Langreth
30 January 2021, 00:04 GMT
Updated on 30 January 2021, 12:02 GMT

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not previewed, commissioned or otherwise endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with. The authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Can you get COVID-19 infection just by “Talking” to an infected person for a few minutes?

Yes, you can.

You don’t need to be exposed to an infected person who is coughing, sneezing and spluttering to get the infection.

Merely talking to an infected person can make you catch the coronavirus infection particularly if you are very close to the person with infection and not wearing a mask in an indoor setting with poor ventilation.

Remember, Even Vaccines don’t have 100% protection.

Remember to maintain Space and Wear a Face Mask

References

Guardian. Talking can spread Covid as much as coughing, says research.
Tiny aerosols of the virus emitted when speaking linger in air for longer than larger droplets from a cough.
Nicola Davis Science correspondent
@NicolaKSDavis
Wed 20 Jan 2021 00.01 GMT

Journal Proceedings of the Royal Society A. Evolution of spray and aerosol from respiratory releases: theoretical estimates for insight on viral transmission. P. M. de Oliveira , L. C. C. Mesquita , S. Gkantonas , A. Giusti and E. Mastorakos. Published:20 January 2021. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.2020.0584

Guardian. Single Covid vaccine dose in Israel ‘less effective than we thought’.
Peter Beaumont
Tue 19 Jan 2021 16.53 GMT

Telegraph: UK to ‘look carefully’ at claims vaccine efficacy in Israel has dropped to 33 per cent with one dose.
Israel’s vaccine tsar says single Pfizer dose appears ‘less effective than we had thought’ as scientists demand evidence is published
By
Sarah Knapton,
SCIENCE EDITOR
20 January 2021 • 1:46pm

Daily Mail: Israel is STILL waiting for its world-beating vaccination drive to kick in as cases and hospitalisations soar higher than ever despite vaccine stopping 50% of new Covid infections. By Chris Jewers For Mailonline11:20, 14 Jan 2021 , updated 18:04, 14 Jan 2021

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and the authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Where can you find official data and statistics on Coronavirus infection?

The official UK Government website for data and insights on Coronavirus (COVID-19).

WHO Dashboard

Worldwide data – John Hopkins university dashboard is perhaps more widely used and quoted.

https://covid19.who.int

https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk

https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and the authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Why are some people falsely sceptical of COVID Vaccines?

Disclaimer: A personal view point !

“Vaccines hesitancy” is a problem in some sections of society.

A significant minority of people have an unhealthy scepticism about all vaccines in general fuelled by misinformation on social media. Some people in western world, who haven’t seen the horrors that can be wrecked by infectious diseases, have an ill-informed view about all Vaccines.

Vaccines have played a significant role in protection against various deadly infections diseases in the past century. The infectious diseases of childhood have become less prevalent even in developing countries now. But there is a risk of Vaccine Hesitancy spreading to these third world developing countries .

That is not to say that all vaccines are free of side effects. Lot of people do have mild side effects after any vaccination. But very serious side effects are rare.

The concerns of people with Vaccine Hesitancy particularly relating to COVID Vaccine is genuine. The COVID vaccines have been rapidly developed and there are no long term efficacy or toxicity data. Because it is a global emergency, countries are forced to begin COVID vaccination based on the available excellent short term efficacy and safety data. Only time can tell whether the Governments got it right over long term.

But there is no evidence to suggest secrecy or conspiracy surrounding development of various vaccines including COVID vaccines. For instance, two reports of severe allergies due to COVID vaccine was immediately brought to the attention of everyone by Regulatory authorities in UK.

It is now reported that Norway is investigating deaths after coronavirus vaccination in very frail elderly people. Any adverse report on vaccines will be investigated and made public.

Rare individual stories of serious side effects is understandably shocking. It is human nature not to risk when one personally feels well at a particular point in time.

It is very important to remember that life is full of risks. People make decisions every day based on benefits versus risks ( eg driving a car). People need to understand that the benefits from most vaccines against infections diseases significantly outweighs the risks of various vaccine side effects. While a handful have serious side effects, many millions do benefit from the all vaccines.

“Vaccines hesitancy” is also not helped Historic mistrust of government in sections of population which regrettably can make things difficult in terms of achieving good vaccine coverage at population level.

If you have concerns about vaccines –

“Do read information about Vaccines with an open mind and pay attention to high quality population level studies assessing risks versus benefits and ignore individual unsubstantiated stories”.

“Do speak to your doctor about your concerns with an open mind”.

“Do NOT always seek information that affirms your views and Worries. Do seek reliable information that challenges your views on vaccines before you make your choice”.

References

JAMA Insights Clinical Update
January 21, 2021
Allergic Reactions Including Anaphylaxis After Receipt of the First Dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine
Tom Shimabukuro, MD, MPH, MBA1; Narayan Nair, MD2
Author Affiliations
JAMA. Published online January 21, 2021. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.0600

BMJ. Covid-19: Norway investigates 23 deaths in frail elderly patients after vaccination
BMJ 2021; 372 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n149 (Published 15 January 2021)
Cite this as: BMJ 2021;372:n149.

Guillain-Barré syndrome after vaccination in United States: data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Food and Drug Administration Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (1990-2005)
Nizar Souayah et al. J Clin Neuromuscul Dis. 2009 Sep.

The Atlantic. Anti-vaxxers Think This Is Their Moment. Society’s well-being depends on how well public-health officials and average internet users combat misinformation. DECEMBER 20, 2020
Renée DiResta.
Technical research manager at the Stanford Internet Observatory.

Countering Vaccine Hesitancy. Kathryn M. Edwards, Jesse M. Hackell and THE COMMITTEE ON INFECTIOUS DISEASES, THE COMMITTEE ON PRACTICE AND AMBULATORY MEDICINE
Pediatrics September 2016, 138 (3) e20162146; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-2146

Guardian. Covid vaccine: 72% of black people unlikely to have jab, UK survey finds.
Linda Geddes
Sat 16 Jan 2021 07.00 GMT

Lazarus JV, Ratzan SC, Palayew A, et al. A global survey of potential acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine. Nat Med 2020 doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-1124-9

BBC. Royal Marsden’s leading cancer expert Martin Gore dies.
Published 11 January 2019

Times. Cancer pioneer Martin Gore’s sudden death from routine jab.
David Brown
Friday January 11 2019, 12.01am, The Times

The benefit of the doubt or doubts over benefits? A systematic literature review of perceived risks of vaccines in European populations
Emilie Karafillakis et al. Vaccine. 2017.

BMJ. The rush to create a covid-19 vaccine may do more harm than good. BMJ 2020; 370 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m3209 (Published 18 August 2020)Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3209

MHRA: Confirmation of guidance to vaccination centres on managing allergic reactions following COVID-19 vaccination with the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and the authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Can Vaccines get us back to normal life again during autumn?

Possibly Yes, but not sooner than that.

Perhaps in later part of 2021, life can just approach some sort of normality in western countries with high uptake of vaccination.

There are many hurdles along the way.

The first problem is supply of Vaccines. There are limited initial supplies globally. It will take many months even for richer countries to get their full supply.

Secondly, Vaccines take many weeks to become very effective. In clinical trials, more than 90% effectiveness was noted for some Vaccines a few weeks after the second dose.

Millions in the UK are yet to receive the first dose. Lots of people would not get the second dose until 10-12 weeks after first dose. A UK minister predicts a September vaccination target for all adults.

So it will take time for the full Vaccine effect to kick in at both individual as well as society level.

Thirdly, there is a potential problem of “Vaccines hesitancy” in sections of the society. A significant minority of people have a unhealthy scepticism about Vaccines fuelled by misinformation on social media.

Fourthly, it has to be pointed out that “No Vaccine works perfectly”. A Vaccine does not offer 100% protection. The high efficacy rates noted in young healthy volunteers participating in various trials might not be observed in real world population, and efficacy rates might be lower in elderly people.

Finally, the most serious potential risk and hurdle would be loss of Vaccine efficacy if new variants of Coronavirus are not protected by existing Vaccines.

Keep the mask; a Vaccine won’t end the COVID-19 crisis right away !

References.

BBC. Will a vaccine give us our old lives back?
By the Visual Journalism Team.
14 January 2021

WSJ. Vaccines Are Coming but They Won’t End Covid-19 Anytime Soon. By Feliz Solomon
Dec. 13, 2020 8:00 am ET

Guardian. All adults in UK will be offered coronavirus vaccine by September.
Dominic Raab sets timescale and says ministers hope to ease lockdown restrictions in March.
Heather Stewart
Sun 17 Jan 2021 13.17 GMT

Guillain-Barré syndrome after vaccination in United States: data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Food and Drug Administration Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (1990-2005)
Nizar Souayah et al. J Clin Neuromuscul Dis. 2009 Sep.

Countering Vaccine Hesitancy. Kathryn M. Edwards, Jesse M. Hackell and THE COMMITTEE ON INFECTIOUS DISEASES, THE COMMITTEE ON PRACTICE AND AMBULATORY MEDICINE
Pediatrics September 2016, 138 (3) e20162146; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-2146

Guardian. Covid vaccine: 72% of black people unlikely to have jab, UK survey finds.
Linda Geddes
Sat 16 Jan 2021 07.00 GMT

CDC. New COVID-19 Variants.
Updated Jan. 15, 2021

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is NOT a expert medical opinion on various topics. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and the authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Should you avoid the Hospitals during this third wave of COVID pandemic?

Yes and No. It depends on how important your hospital visit is.

Recent news reports say that a significant number of patients acquired COVID during their hospital stay. Hospital acquired infections are a serious concern.

Yes, avoid, if you are trying to visit a family member admitted for a routine or elective medical procedure and is doing well.

Yes, avoid, if you can have a satisfactory phone or video consultation with medical team.

No, you should NOT avoid if you have any serious illness like heart attacks, stroke or cancer.

Everything in medicine depends on an assessment of risks versus benefits. For many patients with serious illness, on the whole, the benefits of proper treatment are likely to outweigh the risks of serious problems from COVID and risks can be managed.

If in doubt, ask your doctors or nurse about it. Do not take any action without discussing your concerns with your medical team.

References

Telegraph. Exclusive: Almost as many caught Covid in hospital in past month as in previous four. More than 11,000 people who went into England’s hospitals with unrelated issues contracted virus in December and early January
By Katherine Rushton and Sophie Barnes
14 January 2021 • 9:54pm

BMJ: Views And Reviews. Acute Perspective.
David Oliver: Could we do better on hospital acquired covid-19 in a future wave?
BMJ 2021; 372 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n70 (Published 13 January 2021)
Cite this as: BMJ 2021;372:n70. davidoliver372@googlemail.com
Follow David on Twitter @mancunianmedic

JAMA: Richterman A, Meyerowitz EA, Cevik M. Hospital-acquired SARS-CoV-2 infection: lessons for public health. JAMA2020;324:2155-6. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.21399. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2773128. pmid:33185657

JAMA: Rhee C, Baker M, Vaidya V, et al., CDC Prevention Epicenters Program. CDC Prevention Epicenters Program. Incidence of nosocomial covid-19 in patients hospitalized at a large US academic medical center. JAMA Netw Open2020;3:e2020498. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.20498. pmid:32902653

HSJ. Hospital acquired covid infections hit record high. By Matt Discombe11 December 2020

Healthcare Safety Investigation Branch. National report charts challenges of managing COVID-19 transmission in hospitals. 29 Oct 2020. https://www.hsib.org.uk/news/national-report-charts-challenges-managing-covid-19-transmission-hospitals/.

David Oliver: Heed HSIB on covid transmission in hospital. BMJ2020;371:m4306. doi:10.1136/bmj.m4306. pmid:33177046

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and the authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice

Anything potentially good from this COVID-19 pandemic?

It might seem foolish to ask the question “Anything good from this COVID-19 pandemic?” when so many people across the world has been so badly affected by the coronavirus pandemic.

There is some truth in the proverb that “every dark cloud has a silver lining” and no matter how bad the current pandemic is now, human spirit and endeavour would get something positive out of it.

One possible good thing that has come out of the pandemic is the “mRNA technology”.

Of the three vaccines so far, two of them the Pfizer vaccine and the Moderna vaccine are based on RNA technology.

The successful use of RNA technology for Coronavirus Vaccines would hopefully enable the versatile RNA technology to be further developed and successfully used a cancer treatment in near future.

Further clinical trials in cancer patients would be done to provide proof of their potential.

References:

Bloomberg. Technology & Ideas. mRNA Vaccines Could Vanquish Covid Today, Cancer Tomorrow.
The best news about the mRNA shots from BioNTech and Moderna is that the same technique could also defeat many other diseases.

MSKCC. In a Twist, Scientists Find Cancer Drivers Hiding in RNA, Not DNA.

Jerusalem Post Health & Science. Israeli scientists use mRNA COVID-19 vaccine technology to fight cancer. By MAAYAN JAFFE-HOFFMAN NOVEMBER 24, 2020 20:08

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and the authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

A first COVID infection can make the body resistant to second infection for atleast five months

If someone had a COVID-19 Coronavirus infection and has recovered from it, then their body develops resistance to a further second infection

The protection is similar to that provided by vaccination. The UK study found that the protection lasts for atleast five months.

Caveats: It is not known how long the protection will last and the study is ongoing.

While a previously infected is protected against 2nd infection, that person can still carry and transmit virus to others. PHE reports that “early evidence from the next stage of the study suggests that some of these individuals carry high levels of virus and could continue to transmit the virus to others”. So the usual COVID-19 precautions are still needed.

The study involved healthcare workers from hospitals across the UK. The study recruited mainly Young and Middle age people ; it is not known whether the study findings would apply to older age people who are the most vulnerable.

The protection is not 100%. The protective effect was noted for only 83% . So there is still a chance someone who has recovered from the 1st infection might still get a 2nd infection.

The other big concern is “the risk of reinfection from the new Covid variants spotted in the UK, South Africa and Brazil”.

The study continues and more information would be available later this year ”

References:

PHE. Press release. Past COVID-19 infection provides some immunity but people may still carry and transmit virus
Study finds past coronavirus (COVID-19) infection provides some immunity for at least 5 months, but people may still carry and transmit the virus. Published 14 January 2021. Public Health England

Guardian Newspaper. Recovering from Covid gives similar level of protection to vaccine
PHE found immunity from earlier infection provided 83% protection against reinfection for at least 20 weeks.
Ian Sample Science editor. @iansample
Thu 14 Jan 2021 06.00

Daily Mail. Previous coronavirus infection gives people immunity for five months – MORE than the Oxford vaccine, PHE study finds. By Joe Pinkstone For Mailonline
00:01, 14 Jan 2021 , updated 11:54, 14 Jan 2021

Telegraph: Brazilian Covid variant may infect people who have recovered from virus
Scientists find new coronavirus strain has mutated to be more infectious and has changes that help it evade immune system
By Sarah Knapton,
SCIENCE EDITOR
14 January 2021 • 3:00pm

SIREN – SARS-COV2 immunity and reinfection evaluation; The impact of detectable anti SARS-COV2 antibody on the incidence of COVID-19 in healthcare workers.

SIREN protocol: Impact of detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 on the subsequent incidence of COVID-19 in 100,000 healthcare workers: do antibody positive healthcare workers have less reinfection than antibody negative healthcare workers?

BMJ: Covid-19: Past infection provides 83% protection for five months but may not stop transmission, study finds.
BMJ 2021; 372 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n124 (Published 14 January 2021)
Cite this as: BMJ 2021;372:n124

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and the authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Where can I find official detailed information about the three COVID vaccines (Pfizer, Astra Zeneca and Moderna)

You might have read information about the COVID vaccines on various news outlets and social media messages.

If you want complete summary information about vaccines approved by the regulatory authorities, click on the links below.

Two types of information leaflets accompany all licensed medicines.
– One is meant for health professionals and has lot of clinical information. (called SPC)
– The other is meant for patients and public and provides a summary of facts using lay terms.(called PIL).

The leaflets provide information about all common side effects observed in the trials.

Oxford Astra Zeneca: Professionals Version .

Oxford Astra Zeneca: Patient Version

Pfizer. Professionals Version

Pfizer. Patient Version

Moderna. Professionals Version

Moderna. Patient Version

FDA USA: Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine prescribing informationexternal

FDA USA: Moderna COVID-19 vaccine prescribing informationexternal

The above links reproduced below with longer titles and date of publication.

Please note when new significant information comes to light, the company and regulatory authorities are likely to update the information leaflets.

Oxford Vaccine : Information for Healthcare Professionals on COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca
Updated 7 January 2021.

Oxford Vaccine: MHRA. Information for UK recipients on COVID 19 Vaccine AstraZeneca
Updated 7 January 2021.

Pfizer Vaccine. MHRA. Information for Healthcare Professionals on Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine
Updated 31 December 2020

Pfizer Vaccine. MHRA. Information for UK recipients on Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine
Updated 31 December 2020

Moderna. MHRA. Information for Healthcare Professionals on COVID-19 Vaccine Moderna
Updated 8 January 2021.

Moderna. MHRA. Information for UK recipients on COVID-19 Vaccine Moderna
Updated 8 January 2021.

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and the authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

A third Vaccine approved for protection against COVID-19 Coronavirus infection

Pfizer Vaccine and Astra Zeneca/Oxford Vaccine were approved last month by the UK regulatory authorities.

Now the regulatory authorities have approved a third vaccine. The third vaccine from Moderna along with two other vaccines should help to bring the pandemic to an end.

The Moderna vaccine is a new technology like the Pfizer Vaccine. (based on mRNA technology).

Like the two vaccines, the short term data for Moderna vaccine is very encouraging.

Over long term, one hopes that the protective effect of all the three vaccines is long lasting and that they remain effective against any new variants of coronavirus that might emerge in the coming months.

Overall, there is certainly ‘light at end of the tunnel’ and the world can emerge out of this horrific pandemic in a short period.

BBC. Moderna becomes third Covid vaccine approved in the UK
By Michelle Roberts
Health editor, BBC News online

BBC.Covid-19: Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine judged safe for use in UK
By Michelle Roberts
Health editor, BBC News online
Published2 December 2020

BBC. Covid-19: Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine approved for use in UK
By James Gallagher and Nick Triggle
BBC News
Published30 December 2020

MHRA. Oxford University/AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine approved.

MHRA. Moderna vaccine becomes third COVID-19 vaccine approved by UK regulator.

MHRA. UK medicines regulator gives approval for first UK COVID-19 vaccine.

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and the authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Are takeaway deliveries risky during Coronavirus pandemic?

Possibly yes, if food is not properly handled during preparation, packaging and delivery.

It is likely the risks from properly prepared food and food packaging itself are minimal. There is more risk from interaction with the delivery person.

If you are shielding or a very old person, there is a chance the food delivery person might pass on the infection to you. Stay at safe distance, use gloves and masks, and advice the delivery to be left at door for collection. Wipe Clean outside packaging and transfer contents to your own containers.

But for young adults the risk is likely to be very small.

Most importantly, it has to pointed out that everything in life has some risks. If you are not buying a takeaway, you might have to go shops or supermarkets to buy food for cooking and eating. There is a risk of catching cornovirus from other people while shopping !

There is a good article in BBC titled “ Coronavirus: How safe are takeaways and supermarket deliveries?

A previous blog post also gives information about survival of coronavirus in artificial surfaces

References: Can you catch Coronavirus infection from Soft drink cans, Sandwich wrapper and Amazon Parcels?

Coronavirus: How safe are takeaways and supermarket deliveries? By Victoria Gill
Science correspondent, BBC News

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and the authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

New drug treatments for COVID-19

More good news in fight against COVID-19 pandemic !

Steroids were previously proven to be effective against severe Coronavirus (COVID-19) infection. The steroids are believed to work by dampening the inflammation caused by coronavirus.

Dexamethasone and Prednisolone are the commonly used steroids.

Now two other drugs have been reported to work in COVID-19 infection. (yet to be published).

Both the anti-inflammatory drugs are not entirely new drugs as they are already routinely used for treatment of various arthritis.

The BBC reports: “The anti-inflammatory medications, given via a drip, save an extra life for every 12 treated, say researchers who have carried out a trial in NHS intensive care units”.

The two drugs “tocilizumab and sarilumab” may become available for treatment of severe COVID-19 shortly.

All these additional drug treatments are needed ONLY for severe Coronavirus (COVID-19) infection. Mild COVID-19 infections do NOT need these drug treatments.

References . BBC news. Two more life-saving Covid drugs discovered. By Michelle Roberts. Health editor, BBC News online. Published 7 Jan 2021.

BBC news. Coronavirus: Dexamethasone proves first life-saving drug. By Michelle Roberts. Health editor, BBC News online. Published 16 June 2020

BBC News. Tocilizumab: Arthritis drug may treat severe Covid. By James Gallagher. Health and science correspondent. Published 19 November 2020

BMJ. Dexamethasone in management of covid -19. BMJ 2020; 370 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2648 (Published 03 July 2020)
Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m2648

BMJ. Rapid Recommendations. A living WHO guideline on drugs for covid-19. BMJ 2020; 370 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m3379 (Published 04 September 2020). Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3379

BMJ. Covid-19: Arthritis drugs improve survival in intensive care patients, shows study
BMJ 2021; 372 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n61 (Published 08 January 2021)
Cite this as: BMJ 2021;372:n61

eMC. Sarilumab is a human monoclonal antibody selective for the interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor, produced in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells by recombinant DNA technology. (Sarilumab, administered as a subcutaneous injection is routinely used for treatment of arthritis and is not an entirely new drug).

eMC. Tocilizumab is a recombinant humanized, anti-human monoclonal antibody of the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) sub-class directed against soluble and membrane-bound interleukin 6 receptors. (Tocilizumab, as a intravenous or subcutaneous formulation, is routinely used for treatment of various arthritis and is also not an entirely new drug).

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and the authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Can you get Coronavirus infection even after getting the Vaccine ?

Yes, you can get the COVID-19 infection even after the vaccines.

This is because no vaccine is 100% effective. ( Eg Pfizer 95%, Oxford 70%)

The distressing story of a Nurse in Wales getting the infection after vaccination is an example.

There is also a theoretical chance that protective effect of vaccine is affected by new variants of Coronavirus.

But it is reassuring to learn that the Pfizer vaccine could be effective against UK and South Africa coronavirus strains (but the study is unpublished study and yet to be not peer reviewed ).

Be safe. Be aware !

References: BBC news. Covid: Nurse ‘angry’ over positive test despite vaccination. By Rachael Garside. BBC Wales News.

Covid-19: Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine judged safe for use in UK. By Michelle Roberts. Health editor, BBC News online. Published2 December 2020

Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine. List of authors.
Fernando P. Polack, M.D., Stephen J. Thomas, M.D., Nicholas Kitchin, M.D., Judith Absalon, M.D., et al., for the C4591001 Clinical Trial Group*
December 31, 2020
N Engl J Med 2020; 383:2603-2615
DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2034577

Safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AZD1222) against SARS-CoV-2: an interim analysis of four randomised controlled trials in Brazil, South Africa, and the UK. Merryn Voysey, DPhil *Sue Ann Costa Clemens, PhD *Shabir A Madhi, PhD *Lily Y Weckx, PhD *Pedro M Folegatti, MD *Parvinder K Aley, PhD
et al.
Published:December 08, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32661-1

CNN. Genetics experts worry coronavirus vaccines might not work quite as well against UK variant. By Elizabeth Cohen, CNN Senior Medical Correspondent. Updated 0328 GMT (1128 HKT) December 24, 2020

Telegraph: Coronavirus latest news: Pfizer vaccine could be effective against UK and South Africa strains, study says. Gareth Davies, breaking news editor. 8 JANUARY 2021 • 9:41AM (“Pfizer Inc and BioNTech’s Covid-19 vaccine appeared to work against a key mutation in the highly transmissible new variants of the coronavirus discovered in the UK and South Africa, according to a laboratory study conducted by the US drugmaker. The not-yet peer reviewed study by Pfizer and scientists from the University of Texas Medical Branch indicated the vaccine was effective in neutralizing virus with the so-called N501Y mutation of the spike protein.”)

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and the authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

What is evidence for delaying the 2nd dose of COVID-19 ?

The UK has made a pragmatic decision based on limited available evidence to delay the second dose so that more people can get the vaccine.

While there is some evidence for the Oxford vaccine, there is scant public evidence in support of delaying the Pfizer vaccine.

A BMJ news article provides an excellent summary of the current evidence.

Only time will whether there are any major risks to this approach.

Reference: Covid-19 vaccination: What’s the evidence for extending the dosing interval? BMJ 2021; 372 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n18 (Published 06 January 2021). Cite this as: BMJ 2021;372:n18

Covid-19: Order to reschedule and delay second vaccine dose is “totally unfair,” says BMA
BMJ 2020; 371 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m4978 (Published 31 December 2020)
Cite this as: BMJ 2020;371:m4978

NHS. Letter to chief executives of all NHS trusts and foundation trusts. 30 Dec 2020. https://www.england.nhs.uk/coronavirus/wp-content/uploads/sites/52/2020/12/C0994-System-letter-COVID-19-vaccination-deployment-planning-30-December-2020.pdf.

NHS. Coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine. When the 2nd dose will be given.

Daily Mail. Pfizer warns there is NO proof its Covid jab works when doses are taken 12 weeks apart as UK regulator scraps 21-day rule in desperate attempt to get millions more vaccinated. By Connor Boyd Assistant Health Editor For Mailonline
14:52, 30 Dec 2020 , updated 16:58, 30 Dec 2020

Statement from the UK Chief Medical Officers on the prioritisation of first doses of COVID-19 vaccines. Joint clinical advice from the 4 UK Chief Medical Officers on the prioritisation of first doses of the coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccines. Published 30 December 2020.

Priority groups for coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccination: advice from the JCVI, 30 December 2020. Advice from the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) on the groups that should be prioritised for vaccination.

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and the authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Why do some people falsely believe COVID-19 is a hoax ?

It is quite difficult to give a single reason why some people believe COVID-19 is a hoax.

Since the coronavirus pandemic started, there has been so much anxiety, stress and severe disruption to the everyday life.

Most people like certainty with everyday life. Most people do not wake up and think that there is very very tiny chance I might die today (even though that’s true).

Thinking about bad things all the time can make you feel very stressed and exhausted . In a way, it is healthy NOT to focus on all the bad things that can happen everyday.

The daily bad news about Coronavirus pandemic can be very upsetting to some people, particularly if you cannot mentally switch off.

So some people mentally cope by believing the COVID-19 is fake news. Believing COVID-19 is a hoax helps some people to get on with their lives without being very fearful and worried everyday. It is a coping mechanism.

Unfortunately social media doesn’t help and lot of fake news sites tell people that it is no worse than a simple flu. (which is not true, COVID-19 is certainly much worse than simple flu).

It is true that only about 1% of people with COVID-19 die due to the disease. But if ten million people get infected in a country that means an extra 100,000 deaths. If the whole population of UK were to get the infection, theoretically it could mean at least an extra 500,000 deaths.

COVID-19 is particularly bad for old people . The risk of death is <1 per 10 000 for someone aged less than 30 but the risk is much higher for older age groups. For example, in men aged 80 or older, the risk of dying from COVID-19 is just over 1 in 10.

Be safe. Be aware.

Do trust the NHS website rather than a “friend of a friend” on social media.

References:

Guardian Newspaper. Doctors are our frontline against Covid. Now they lead the fight against its deniers, too
Gaby Hinsliff. Mon 4 Jan 2021 14.36 GMT

Newspaper headlines: ‘Lockdown 3′ and ‘race to vaccinate vulnerable’
By BBC News. 5 Jan 2021.

“Normal” risk and dangers of covid-19
Awareness of normal risk is not normal
BMJ 2020; 371 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m4121 (Published 29 October 2020)
Cite this as: BMJ 2020;371:m4121 https://www.bmj.com/content/bmj/371/bmj.m4121.full.pdf

Spiegelhalter D. Use of “normal” risk to improve understanding of dangers of covid-19. BMJ2020;370:m3259. doi:10.1136/bmj.m3259. pmid:32907857

Comparative evaluation of clinical manifestations and risk of death in patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 and seasonal influenza: cohort study. BMJ 2020; 371 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m4677 (Published 15 December 2020)
Cite this as: BMJ 2020;371:m4677

Infection fatality risk for SARS-CoV-2 in community dwelling population of Spain: nationwide seroepidemiological study
BMJ 2020; 371 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m4509 (Published 27 November 2020)
Cite this as: BMJ 2020;371:m4509. https://www.bmj.com/content/371/bmj.m4509

Office for National statistics. Population estimates for the UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland: mid-2019.

NHS Coronavirus (COVID-19). Get the latest NHS information and advice about coronavirus (COVID-19).

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and the authors views are not in way intended to be a substitute for professional advice.

Will the existing COVID vaccines work against the new Coronavirus variant spreading in England ?

A new variant of Corona virus is spreading fast in England.

Some Hospitals in England are reportedly being swamped with COVID patients.

The whole world is placing their bets on vaccines to defeat the Coronavirus and emerge out of this dreadful pandemic.

Studies are ongoing about the effectiveness of vaccines against this new variant coronavirus. There is a risk that changes seen in the variant virus (mutations) might make it evade the vaccine shield.

So far, there has been no conclusive evidence that the variant virus will definitely escape the vaccines. Even if they do, the good news is that current vaccines can be adapted to deal with the changes in the virus.

Reference

(1) BBC News. New coronavirus variant: What do we know?. By James Gallagher
Health and science correspondent. Published 20 December 2020.

(2) BBC News. Newspaper headlines: ‘Vacc to the future’ and village hall jabs.

(3) Preliminary genomic characterisation of an emergent SARS-CoV-2 lineage in the UK defined by a novel set of spike mutations.

(4) Neutralising antibodies drive Spike mediated SARS-CoV-2 evasion.

(5). Covid-19: New coronavirus variant is identified in UK. BMJ 2020; 371 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m4857 (Published 16 December 2020)
Cite this as: BMJ 2020;371:m4857

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

Is the COVID-19 Coronavirus Vaccine mandatory for everyone?

NO, it is not mandatory. The Government is NOT making it compulsory for everyone to have the vaccination. You have to give voluntary consent for Vaccination.

No one is being forced to have the COVID-19 vaccines.

In fact, there is a huge queue of people waiting to have the vaccine. The NHS capacity is limited at present and the NHS is trying the best to give vaccination to those people who are very keen to have it.

So, if you don’t want to have it, no one will force you to have it.

Once the waiting list for vaccination is cleared in early 2021, there might be some changes . If clinical trials show that vaccinated people do not carry virus and pass it to others, then the Government might change its guidelines.

For instance, health professionals working with sick and vulnerable people might be asked to have the vaccine so that they don’t pass the virus to vulnerable people under their care.

But it’s very unlikely vaccination would be made mandatory for General Public.

References

(1). Guidance. COVID-19: the green book, chapter 14a. Coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccination information for public health professionals.

(2). Guidance. COVID-19 vaccination: guide for healthcare workers. Updated 15 December 2020

(3) Form. COVID-19 vaccination: consent form and letter for adults

(4). Coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccination consent forms.

(5). Guardian Newspaper. NHS doctors ‘scrabbling’ to get vaccine amid alarm at Covid variant. Many medics ‘frustrated’ about low priority given to frontline staff at high risk of infection. Denis Campbell Health policy editor
Sun 27 Dec 2020 20.46 GMT

(6). PHE. Guidance. Why you have to wait for your COVID-19 vaccine. Published 7 December 2020

(7). Guardian. Coronavirus. Spain will register people who refuse Covid vaccine, says health minister. Ashifa Kassam in Madrid. Tue 29 Dec 2020 14.33 GMT

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please DO consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and may change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

Is the COVID-19 Coronavirus vaccine safe for use in patients having chemotherapy and immunotherapy?

Yes, the available indirect evidence indicates that the anticipated benefits overweigh the potential risks.

Cancer patients, particularly those on chemotherapy have compromised immune systems and hence more vulnerable to COVID-19 Coronavirus complications.

The guidelines indicate that anticipated benefits of vaccine are greater than unknown risks from the Coronavirus vaccines.

The Vaccine trials deliberately included lot of healthy people. Very few people with cancer, particularly cancer patients on active treatment, were included in the COVID-19 trials. So there is not much direct evidence regarding efficacy and safety of Vaccines in cancer patients. But indirect evidence significantly favours Coronavirus vaccination in cancer patients.

Flu vaccines are regularly used in cancer patients without any major side effects specific to cancer patients. No increase in incidence or severity of drug side effects were seen in immunotherapy patients having flu vaccines.

On balance, Vaccination is most likely to be of utmost benefit for most advanced cancer patients on active treatment.

References:

ESMO STATEMENTS FOR VACCINATION AGAINST COVID-19 IN PATIENTS WITH CANCER.

Guidance: COVID-19: the green book, chapter 14a
Coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccination information
for public health professionals. (UK),

Cochrane: Influenza (flu) vaccination for preventing influenza in adults with cancer

Safety of Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Cancer Patients Receiving Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
Curtis R Chong et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2020.

ESMO: CANCER PATIENT MANAGEMENT DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC.

Kuderer NM Choueiri TK Shah DP et al.
Clinical impact of COVID-19 on patients with cancer (CCC19): a cohort study. Lancet. 2020; 395: 1907-1918

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.
The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

Is this the beginning of the end for COVID-19 ?

The superstitious might say “don’t jinx it by calling the end early”……..

So the answer is “may be”.

The good news from two Vaccine trials indicates that this might be “beginning of the end” for COVID-19.

Two recent press reports give rise to lot of optimism to the population that is getting weary with the lockdown. It is good to have a ray of hope among all the doom and gloom.

The covid-19 vaccine (mRNA-1273) from US biotech company Moderna was found to be 94.5% effective.

Another mRNA vaccine developed by Pfizer and BioNTech was reported to be 90% effective.

Now the caveats…. these are interim trial results and the trial results have not been subject to scrutiny by the wider scientific community as the full results are yet to be published.

Clinical Trials usually recruit motivated people without too many other medical problems. So one has to hope that these interim trial results can be replicated in the wider elderly population with lot of medical problems.

Update: Now a third Vaccine, the “Oxford Vaccine” has been found to be 90% effective when given as “a half and then full” schedule.

Update: summary so far at BMJ website.

Let’s hope that all the vaccines are very safe and highly effective when used in the real world population.

References: (1). Covid-19: Vaccine candidate may be more than 90% effective, interim results indicate. BMJ 2020; 371 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m4347 (Published 09 November 2020). Cite this as: BMJ 2020;371:m4347.

(2). Covid-19: Moderna vaccine is nearly 95% effective, trial involving high risk and elderly people shows. BMJ 2020; 371 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m4471 (Published 17 November 2020). Cite this as: BMJ 2020;371:m4471

(3). Covid-19: Oxford vaccine is up to 90% effective, interim analysis indicates
BMJ 2020; 371 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m4564 (Published 23 November 2020)
Cite this as: BMJ 2020;371:m4564

Covid-19: What do we know about the late stage vaccine candidates?. BMJ 2020; 371 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m4576 (Published 24 November 2020)
Cite this as: BMJ 2020;371:m4576

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you. The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

Coronavirus re-infection and immunity

Many Viral infections give some sort of immunity to the person infected. For example, if a child has chicken pox, then the child develops immunity to further chicken pox. This immunity can even be life long for many children.

But some viral infections don’t result in significant immunity to further infection. For example, Flu and Common Cold viruses infections do not result in effective long immunity. That’s why flu vaccines are given yearly to vulnerable people.

It was hoped that a Coronavirus infection could result in at least some sort of long immunity to further infections.

A recent report of man who developed Coronavirus/ COVID-19 for the second time is worrying. If this is a widespread phenomenon and not an isolated case, then it has significant implications for the current pandemic.

Herd immunity, whereby many people are immune to further Coronavirus infection either through previous infection or Vaccination, was suggested as the way of ending the current pandemic.

This report, if confirmed to be true across significant sections of population, would indicate a much more longer duration of COVID-19 pandemic.

References:

1. BBC news: Covid reinfection: Man gets Covid twice and second hit ‘more severe’
By James Gallagher
Health and science correspondent

2. Lancet Infectious diseases. Genomic evidence for reinfection with SARS-CoV-2: a case study. Richard L Tillett, PhD, Joel R Sevinsky, PhD, Paul D Hartley, PhD, Heather Kerwin, MPH, Natalie Crawford, MD, Andrew Gorzalski, PhD, et al.
Published:October 12, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30764-7

3. Lancet Infectious diseases. What reinfections mean for COVID-19. Akiko Iwasaki
Published:October 12, 2020. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30783-0Edridge AWD

4. Edridge AWD, Kaczorowska et al.Seasonal coronavirus protective immunity is short-lasting.Nat Med. 2020; (published online Sept 14.)https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-1083-1View in Article

5. Tillett RL et al. Genomic evidence for reinfection with SARS-CoV-2: a case study.Lancet Infect Dis. 2020; (published online Oct 12.)https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30764-7View in Article

6. To KK-W et al. COVID-19 re-infection by a phylogenetically distinct SARS-coronavirus-2 strain confirmed by whole genome sequencing.Clin Infect Dis. 2020; (published online Aug 25.)https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1275View in Article

7. Van Elslande J et al.Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 reinfection by a phylogenetically distinct strain.Clin Infect Dis. 2020; (published online Sept 5.)https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1330View in Article

8. Prado-Vivar B et al.COVID-19 re-infection by a phylogenetically distinct SARS-CoV-2 variant, first confirmed event in South America.SSRN. 2020; (published online Sept 8.) (preprint)https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3686174View in Article

9. Dearlove B et al. A SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate would likely match all currently circulating variants.Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2020; 117: 23652-23662View in Article

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

Risk of Death from COVID-19: does ethnicity matter?

Yes, people from different ethnicities are affected in different ways by Coronavirus.

People of white ethnicity seems to be at lower risk.

People of black ethnicity seem to have higher risk of severe disease but seem to survive better than South Asians in UK.

South Asians who are hospitalised in UK due to severe disease seem to have the highest risk of death.

More work needs to be done to identify underlying the biological factors responsible for the increased risk of death in South Asians in UK.

BBC News. Covid: South Asian hospital patients ‘at greater risk of dying’

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.


The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

Coronavirus : Why Hand hygiene is also important in addition to Face mask ?

The UK government’s slogan for controlling COVID-19 pandemic is “ ‘Hands. Face. Space

The reason hands are emphasised is because the Virus can stay alive on Human skin for many hours. So touching others by hugging or hand shaking can spread the virus.

A recent Japanese study found that Coronavirus can stay alive on skin surfaces for about 9 hours. They also found that alcohol gel can inactivate the virus in about 15 seconds !

References:

1. Survival of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus on the human skin: Importance of hand hygiene in COVID-19 Ryohei Hirose, Hiroshi Ikegaya, Yuji Naito, Naoto Watanabe, Takuma Yoshida, Risa Bandou, Tomo Daidoji, Yoshito Itoh, Takaaki NakayaClinical Infectious Diseases, ciaa1517, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1517 Published: 03 October 2020

2. Guardian: Coronavirus outbreakHands. Face. Space’: UK government to relaunch Covid-19 slogan.

3. Fox News: The coronavirus can survive on skin for this many hours, study suggests
Researchers found that SARS-CoV-2 outlived the influenza A virus on human skin
. Madeline Farber By Madeline Farber | Fox News

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.
The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

Which is better for COVID-19 protection : face masks or face shields.

Various type of masks are used by public for protection against COVID-19.

Some wear cloth masks. Some use medical disposable masks. Some wear face shields particularly those working in shops.

Are they all the same?.

No

Recent evidence indicates that standard light-blue disposable surgical masks are the most effective at containing the Cornovirus.

Face shields were found to be failing when compared with standard ( triple layer) medical grade masks.

References

1. Face shields ineffective at trapping aerosols, says Japanese supercomputer. Guardian Newspaper. Justin McCurry in Tokyo. Tue 22 Sep 2020 07.19 BST. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/sep/22/face-shields-ineffective-trapping-aerosols-japanese-supercomputer-coronavirus

2. Do cloth masks work? Supercomputer Fugaku says yes.World’s fastest computer calculates that nonwoven fabric is best. YUKI MISUMI, Nikkei staff writer. August 25, 2020 00:34 JST. https://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Technology/Do-cloth-masks-work-Supercomputer-Fugaku-says-yes

3. Visualizing droplet dispersal for face shields and masks with exhalation valves. Physics of Fluids 32, 091701 (2020); https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0022968

4. Visualizing the effectiveness of face masks in obstructing respiratory jets. Siddhartha Verma, Manhar Dhanak, and John Frankenfield. https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/5.0022968
Phys Fluids (1994). 2020.

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

Cancer and COVID-19

Cancer patients, as expected, did badly during the 1st wave of the COVID-19 pandemic

Data presented at ESMO ( European Society of Medical Oncology) shows that Cancers had – higher rates of Hospitalisation, higher risk of Complications and increased risk of Death.

Elderly cancer patients on the whole did very badly but surprisingly cancer patients under age of 50 did far worse than their peers without cancer.

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

COVID-19 risk assessment of NHS members : is it an opportunity missed?

The National Health Service had recently embarked on a Risk assessment exercise of its staff to assess the Vulnerability of individual members to Coronavirus infection ( COVID-19).

The exercise is being done with good intentions. Given the unprecedented situation of the pandemic and lack of concrete data , the exercise seemed to have steered away from firm “one size fits all” type of recommendations.

Given the uncertainties with the currently available data on various forms of protection ( from simple surgical masks to shielding) , the exercise could have been a starting point for an nationwide intervention study .

An opportunity seems to have been missed and if there is a second wave, NHS might regret not learning from the first wave.

Please do add your opinion at the rapid response section of the BMJ.

References

1. Covid-19 risk assessment in BAME staff

Covid-19 risk assessment: a futile metaphorical strip search

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m3251 (Published 26 August 2020)

Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3251

2. Physical distancing interventions and incidence of coronavirus disease 2019: natural experiment in 149 countries

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2743 (Published 15 July 2020)

Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m2743

3. Complete protection from covid-19 is possible for health workers

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2641 (Published 07 July 2020)

Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m2641

4. Two metres or one: what is the evidence for physical distancing in covid-19?

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m3223 (Published 25 August 2020)

Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3223

If you survive the Coronavirus, Can you get Coronavirus infection again ?

Yes, you can get infection again.

Last month, we had studies reporting that the immunity to Coronavirus fades quickly after recovering from an infection. The scientists have warned that re-infection is a risk.

Now, we have a case in Hong Kong where a patient seem to have been unlucky to get the infection again. It is a worrying report and suggests that coronavirus is going to be with us for a long time.

The only reassuring fact is that patient was free of symptoms during second infection. One has to hope that all re-infections are mild !

References

1. Sundar.blog. CAN YOU GET CORONAVIRUS INFECTION MORE THAN ONCE?

2. BBC. Hong Kong reports ‘first case’ of virus reinfection.

3. Clinical Infectious Diseases : report on twitter.

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of publication and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

Can you catch Coronavirus infection from Soft drink cans, Sandwich wrapper and Amazon Parcels?

Yes. Possible but chances are very small according to reports.

If someone sneezed or coughed near a parcel or food package and you touch it within a few hours, it is possible to get Coronavirus infection from parcels and packages.

But, in practice, most parcels and food packaging seem safe and no conclusive real world evidence has been published so far to indicate that packages spread infection widely.

In experimental conditions, Coronavirus has been shown to survive for upto 72 hours. The virus is “more stable on plastic and stainless steel than on copper and cardboard”.

In laboratory conditions “On copper, no viable SARS-CoV-2 virus was measured after 4 hours . On cardboard, no viable SARS-CoV-2 virus was measured after 24 hours”.

In the artificial conditions of the lab “The longest viability of viruses was on stainless steel and plastic; the estimated median half-life of SARS-CoV-2 virus was approximately 5.6 hours on stainless steel and 6.8 hours on plastic”.

Solution: If you are worried , and if possible, you can try leaving parcels for 24hrs before touching them with bare hands. Alternatively, try wearing disposable gloves to remove packaging.

References

1.NEJM. Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. April 16, 2020. N Engl J Med 2020; 382:1564-1567. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2004973

2. BBC. Coronavirus: What are the risks of catching it from food packaging?

3. CDC. How It Spreads.

Can you get Coronavirus infection more than once?

If you are one of the unlucky ones to have already been infected with Coronavirus infection but recovered from it, can you become unlucky again and get another Coronavirus infection later this year ?

Unfortunately, the answer is a YES.

Some Viral infections can sometimes lead to life long immunity. For example, most people who had chicken pox as a child tend to have lifelong immunity and it would be uncommon to get chicken pox again. (except in some circumstances).

But infection with ‘Coronavirus causing COVID-19’ doesn’t seem led to long lasting immunity or resistance to a second Coronavirus infection.

A Newspaper report on a study by a team from King’s College London suggests that susceptibility to a second infection may occur as short as 3 months in some patients. This because the level of antibodies produced by the immune system after first infection start to fade away within a few months in some patients.

If confirmed, this is probably one of the most worrying news during this pandemic.

This study result could also affect Vaccine development and how frequently it may need to be administered.

References

Guardian Newspaper: Coronavirus outbreak. Immunity to Covid-19 could be lost in months, UK study suggests. Ian Sample. Science editor. @iansample. Sun 12 Jul 2020 17.31 BST

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of publication and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

Can Coronavirus linger in air, and cause COVID-19 by spreading through air ?

Normally many flu-like viruses spread by direct or close contact.

Because Virus containing droplets are heavier than air, scientifically it is thought that when someone coughs or sneezes, virus particles quickly fall to ground or surrounding objects.(“like a brick or stone falling to ground“).

But a group of scientists and WHO have raised the possibility that coronavirus can stay in air for longer periods, float around and cause more infections. (“float like a balloon“). This is called air-borne transmission.

What does it mean?

If confirmed– this means “closed spaces” are high risk even if you maintain 2 metre distance from an infected person. AVOID CLOSED SPACES.

As many people in UK do not wear masks in public places, there is a high chance of second wave of infections in the coming weeks as lock down is eased. WEAR A MASK.

It also means avoiding non-essential visitors to hospitals so that visitors cannot catch the infection or pass the infection to vulnerable patients. AVOID NON-ESSENTIAL VISITORS AT HOSPITALS.

If air borne transmission is confirmed, it is also bad news for the coming winter.

If Coronavirus is still in community and not eliminated by winter, air-borne transmission is likely to result in further wave of infections.

This is because Winter means more closed spaces and more chance of infection !!!!!!

STAY SAFE

References

1. Daily Mail Newspaper. Group of 239 scientists demand that WHO admit coronavirus is AIRBORNE -meaning the public should wear masks indoors and AC units should be fitted with filters .By Ariel Zilber For Dailymail.com and Reuters and Associated Press. 17:44, 05 Jul 2020 , updated 08:14, 06 Jul 2020

2. Guardian Newspaper. WHO underplaying risk of airborne spread of Covid-19, say scientists. Open letter says there is emerging evidence of potential for aerosol transmission. Hannah Devlin. Science correspondent. @hannahdev

3. Guardian Newspaper. Coronavirus outbreak Global report: WHO says ‘evidence emerging’ of airborne coronavirus spread. Martin Farrer and agencies.

4. BBC News. Coronavirus: WHO rethinking how Covid-19 spreads in air.

5. It is Time to Address Airborne Transmission of COVID-19. Lidia Morawska, Donald K Milton. Clinical Infectious Diseases, ciaa939, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa939. Published: 06 July 2020

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of publication and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

Can Vitamin K help fight Coronavirus?

Possible but like every other observational study, take it with pinch of salt.

Further evidence from well conducted trials are needed before it can be recommended as a COVID treatment.

In mean time, it’s better to stick to natural sources of vitamin such as those mentioned in the newspaper article ( spinach, broccoli, green vegetables, blueberries, all types of fruit and vegetables).

Guardian Newspaper: Vitamin K could help fight coronavirus, study suggests

Scientists in Netherlands explore possible link between deficiency and Covid-19 deaths

Daniel Boffey. Fri 5 Jun 2020 14.50 BST

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of publication and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.