Coronavirus re-infection and immunity

Many Viral infections give some sort of immunity to the person infected. For example, if a child has chicken pox, then the child develops immunity to further chicken pox. This immunity can even be life long for many children.

But some viral infections don’t result in significant immunity to further infection. For example, Flu and Common Cold viruses infections do not result in effective long immunity. That’s why flu vaccines are given yearly to vulnerable people.

It was hoped that a Coronavirus infection could result in at least some sort of long immunity to further infections.

A recent report of man who developed Coronavirus/ COVID-19 for the second time is worrying. If this is a widespread phenomenon and not an isolated case, then it has significant implications for the current pandemic.

Herd immunity, whereby many people are immune to further Coronavirus infection either through previous infection or Vaccination, was suggested as the way of ending the current pandemic.

This report, if confirmed to be true across significant sections of population, would indicate a much more longer duration of COVID-19 pandemic.

References:

1. BBC news: Covid reinfection: Man gets Covid twice and second hit ‘more severe’
By James Gallagher
Health and science correspondent

2. Lancet Infectious diseases. Genomic evidence for reinfection with SARS-CoV-2: a case study. Richard L Tillett, PhD, Joel R Sevinsky, PhD, Paul D Hartley, PhD, Heather Kerwin, MPH, Natalie Crawford, MD, Andrew Gorzalski, PhD, et al.
Published:October 12, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30764-7

3. Lancet Infectious diseases. What reinfections mean for COVID-19. Akiko Iwasaki
Published:October 12, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30783-0Edridge AWD

4. Edridge AWD, Kaczorowska et al.Seasonal coronavirus protective immunity is short-lasting.Nat Med. 2020; (published online Sept 14.)https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-1083-1View in Article

5. Tillett RL et al. Genomic evidence for reinfection with SARS-CoV-2: a case study.Lancet Infect Dis. 2020; (published online Oct 12.)https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30764-7View in Article

6. To KK-W et al. COVID-19 re-infection by a phylogenetically distinct SARS-coronavirus-2 strain confirmed by whole genome sequencing.Clin Infect Dis. 2020; (published online Aug 25.)https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1275View in Article

7. Van Elslande J et al.Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 reinfection by a phylogenetically distinct strain.Clin Infect Dis. 2020; (published online Sept 5.)https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1330View in Article

8. Prado-Vivar B et al.COVID-19 re-infection by a phylogenetically distinct SARS-CoV-2 variant, first confirmed event in South America.SSRN. 2020; (published online Sept 8.) (preprint)https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3686174View in Article

9. Dearlove B et al. A SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate would likely match all currently circulating variants.Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2020; 117: 23652-23662View in Article

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

How long can Coronavirus Virus Survive on doors, handles, furniture and fittings?

Coronavirus was previously known to survive for about 3 days at room temperatures. (On certain surfaces made of plastic and stainless steel).

Now an Australian team has found that Coronavirus can survive upto 28 days in Cold conditions. The results need to be interpreted with great caution as it tested virus under unusual artificial conditions and hence might not be relevant for real life situations

On the other hand , if the study is right, then it might indicate that the Pandemic can get worse during cold Winter before it gets better in Spring and Summer.

What can we do? In addition to Social distancing measures and Mask wearing, Frequent hand washing would stop the Virus from Spreading.

Every Week , we are learning more about the Virus. Let’s hope it comes to an end soon.

1. BBC news: Covid-19 virus ‘survives on some surfaces for 28 days’. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-54500673

2. Daily Mail. https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8828459/Coronavirus-survive-MONTH-surfaces-including-banknotes-mobile-phone-screens.html

3. Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1
April 16, 2020
N Engl J Med 2020; 382:1564-1567
DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2004973

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

Risk of Death from COVID-19: does ethnicity matter?

Yes, people from different ethnicities are affected in different ways by Coronavirus.

People of white ethnicity seems to be at lower risk.

People of black ethnicity seem to have higher risk of severe disease but seem to survive better than South Asians in UK.

South Asians who are hospitalised in UK due to severe disease seem to have the highest risk of death.

More work needs to be done to identify underlying the biological factors responsible for the increased risk of death in South Asians in UK.

BBC News. Covid: South Asian hospital patients ‘at greater risk of dying’

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.


The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

Does intensive follow benefit Bowel cancer patients?

Photo by rawpixel.com on Pexels.com

The old adage “prevention is better than cure” is mostly true with regards to cancer if you can do it.

If you can’t prevent it , at least catch it early, has been the prime motive behind screening tests for breast, cervical, bowel, lung and prostate cancers. (“early is better”). Cancers that are detected at an early stage can offer a better chance of curative treatment.

So one might logically expect that intensive monitoring and early diagnosis of a cancer relapse or a secondary cancer after initial treatment can be immensely helpful.

But the evidence for intensive hospital follow-up visits and investigations is weak for most cancers except for some cancers such as Testicular Cancers which are highly curable.

Intensive monitoring after bowel cancer treatment can detect treatable cancers. To confirm the benefit of early detection of relapse by intensive monitoring , a trial was conducted comparing intensive follow up versus routine follow up ( in France and Belgium).

Data presented at ESMO ( European Society of Medical Oncology) shows that the intensive follow with scans can detect cancer recurrences which can be treated by further surgery. But unfortunately the intensive follow up did NOT lead to longer life expectancy.

The results might be counterintuitive but after an average follow up more than six years, this trial demonstrates that intensive follow is NOT always best. Scans might be done for psychological reassurance but they could end up causing significant anxiety.

When there are resource constraints (e.g low economic countries) , one has to be careful about frequents routine scans for those without symptoms.

During COVID-19, even in rich countries such as UK where there might be huge waiting lists, one has to consider prioritising scans for those who need most.

References

1. ESMO Daily reporter: INTENSIVE FOLLOW-UP INCREASES FREQUENCY OF CURATIVE INTENT SECONDARY SURGERY IN COLORECTAL CANCER.

2. DRE is useless for follow up of prostate cancer patients. https://www.bmj.com/rapid-response/2011/11/03/dre-useless-follow-prostate-cancer-patients

3. Cancer patients follow up and a new role for GPs. https://www.bmj.com/rapid-response/2011/11/03/cancer-patients-follow-and-new-role-gps

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

Once a week chemotherapy is not superior to Chemotherapy given once every 3-weeks

Advanced ovarian cancer is treated by chemotherapy. A pre ious study of Japanese ovarian cancer patients RT showed significantly increased survival in those treated with dose-dense weekly paclitaxel compared to the standard three-weekly schedule.

Data from an international trial called ICON8 was presented at the ESMO Virtual Congress 2020, this week.

The final analysis of ICON8 “provides conclusive evidence that although weekly dose-dense chemotherapy can be successfully administered as first-line treatment for ovarian cancer, it has no survival advantage over the standard chemotherapy given once every 3 weeks.

ICON8: Overall survival results in a GCIG phase III randomised controlled trial of weekly dose-dense chemotherapy in first line epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma treatment. Citation. Annals of Oncology (2020) 31 (suppl_4): S551-S589. 10.1016/annonc/annonc276

ESMO Daily Reporter: OVARIAN CANCER: FIRST-LINE DOSE-DENSE CHEMOTHERAPY IS NOT SUPERIOR TO STANDARD 3-WEEKLY CHEMOTHERAPY.

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

Which is better for COVID-19 protection : face masks or face shields.

Various type of masks are used by public for protection against COVID-19.

Some wear cloth masks. Some use medical disposable masks. Some wear face shields particularly those working in shops.

Are they all the same?.

No

Recent evidence indicates that standard light-blue disposable surgical masks are the most effective at containing the Cornovirus.

Face shields were found to be failing when compared with standard ( triple layer) medical grade masks.

References

1. Face shields ineffective at trapping aerosols, says Japanese supercomputer. Guardian Newspaper. Justin McCurry in Tokyo. Tue 22 Sep 2020 07.19 BST. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/sep/22/face-shields-ineffective-trapping-aerosols-japanese-supercomputer-coronavirus

2. Do cloth masks work? Supercomputer Fugaku says yes.World’s fastest computer calculates that nonwoven fabric is best. YUKI MISUMI, Nikkei staff writer. August 25, 2020 00:34 JST. https://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Technology/Do-cloth-masks-work-Supercomputer-Fugaku-says-yes

3. Visualizing droplet dispersal for face shields and masks with exhalation valves. Physics of Fluids 32, 091701 (2020); https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0022968

4. Visualizing the effectiveness of face masks in obstructing respiratory jets. Siddhartha Verma, Manhar Dhanak, and John Frankenfield. https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/5.0022968
Phys Fluids (1994). 2020.

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

A highly effective treatment for secondary brain cancer in some Lung cancer patients

Brain secondaries from many primary cancer is always difficult to treat.

Particularly brain secondaries from Lung cancer patients can be quite difficult to treat.

Whole Brain Radiotherpy was widely used in past to treat brain secondaries in Lung cancer patients until 2016.

In 2016, QUARTZ study reported that Radiotherapy provided“ little additional clinically significant benefit for this patient group”.

So very few treatment options existed for this group of patients.

So it’s reassuring to see that a new drug was found to be highly active in lung cancer patients with brain secondaries.

Data presented at ESMO ( European Society of Medical Oncology) shows that the Lorlatinib showed a staggering 82% response rate in a small sub-group of patients.

References 1. Dexamethasone and supportive care with or without whole brain radiotherapy in treating patients with non-small cell lung cancer with brain metastases unsuitable for resection or stereotactic radiotherapy (QUARTZ): results from a phase 3, non-inferiority, randomised trial. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(16)30825-X/fulltext

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

New treatment combination for advanced Kidney cancers

The treatment of kidney cancer has dramatically changed in the last decade. More treatments are in pipeline and there was more exciting news this week.

Upfront immunotherapy in combination with other agents is very promising in 1st line treatment of advanced kidney cancers.

Data presented at ESMO ( European Society of Medical Oncology) shows that the combination of Nivolumab and Cabozantinib is better than Sunitinib alone.

Nivolumab and Cabozantinib” combo joins the other combos “Nivolumab and Ipililumab” and “Pembrolizumab and Axitinib “ as 1st line options

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

Cancer and COVID-19

Cancer patients, as expected, did badly during the 1st wave of the COVID-19 pandemic

Data presented at ESMO ( European Society of Medical Oncology) shows that Cancers had – higher rates of Hospitalisation, higher risk of Complications and increased risk of Death.

Elderly cancer patients on the whole did very badly but surprisingly cancer patients under age of 50 did far worse than their peers without cancer.

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

Immunotherapy not superior to Chemotherapy in 1st line treatment of bladder cancer

Immunotherapy has revolutionised the treatment of many advanced cancers such Skin cancer Melanoma and Kidney cancers.

Immunotherapy is a standard treatment for 2nd line treatment of bladder cancer.

Two recent trials presented at ESMO virtual meeting explored the use of immunotherapy in 1st line setting. (Pembrolizumab and Durvalumab).

Immunotherapy alone, or in combination with Chemotherapy was not superior even in patients selected by markers thought to favour immunotherapy alone.

For most bladder cancer patients immunotherapy remains a excellent 2nd line option or as a maintenance treatment option.

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you. The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

New treatment for Advanced Uterine Cancer

Women with advanced uterine / endometrial cancer are usually treated with chemotherapy.

Those who failed chemotherapy or those who are fit for chemotherapy are sometimes treated with hormone treatment.

Letrozole is one such hormone treatment for those patients with hormone sensitive cancer.

In breast cancer, Letrozole efficacy can be improved by a treatment called Palboclicib.

A trial was done to check whether the same improvement can be observed in uterine cancer when the combination of Letrozole and Palboclicib is tried.

The trial data presented at the ESMO ( European Society of Medical Oncology) is very promising.

If large trials confirm this finding, the combination would be standard treatment in future.

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

Hope and incurable Cancer: does hope torment or does it help to cope?

A diagnosis of incurable and advanced cancer is often a massive shock to everyone.

Should we ask them to face reality , accept death and extinguish all hope.

Or should we be offering hope of living a bit longer with treatments while being honest with prognosis.

Hope can be tormenting to some.

Hope can be comforting to some.

What are you views?

Contribute your views at online rapid response @BMJ journal

Don’t torment me with hope. BMJ 2020; 370 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m3016 (Published 09 September 2020)Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3016

In defence of Hope: https://www.bmj.com/content/370/bmj.m3016/rr-3

COVID-19 risk assessment of NHS members : is it an opportunity missed?

The National Health Service had recently embarked on a Risk assessment exercise of its staff to assess the Vulnerability of individual members to Coronavirus infection ( COVID-19).

The exercise is being done with good intentions. Given the unprecedented situation of the pandemic and lack of concrete data , the exercise seemed to have steered away from firm “one size fits all” type of recommendations.

Given the uncertainties with the currently available data on various forms of protection ( from simple surgical masks to shielding) , the exercise could have been a starting point for an nationwide intervention study .

An opportunity seems to have been missed and if there is a second wave, NHS might regret not learning from the first wave.

Please do add your opinion at the rapid response section of the BMJ.

References

1. Covid-19 risk assessment in BAME staff

Covid-19 risk assessment: a futile metaphorical strip search

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m3251 (Published 26 August 2020)

Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3251

2. Physical distancing interventions and incidence of coronavirus disease 2019: natural experiment in 149 countries

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2743 (Published 15 July 2020)

Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m2743

3. Complete protection from covid-19 is possible for health workers

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2641 (Published 07 July 2020)

Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m2641

4. Two metres or one: what is the evidence for physical distancing in covid-19?

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m3223 (Published 25 August 2020)

Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3223

Can Hair dyes cause cancer?

Yes, there is a possible increased risk of some types of skin and breast cancer as well as ovarian cancer.

Permanent hair dyes are widely used. A recent study published in BMJ suggests that use of Hair dyes might be risky.

This large study from United States enrolled 117 200 women in the Nurses’ Health Study. The women reported on personal use of permanent hair dyes, and were followed for 36 years. So overall it is a high quality observational study.

Read the full paper and Caveats at the BMJ website.

References

Personal use of permanent hair dyes and cancer risk and mortality in US women: prospective cohort study

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2942 (Published 02 September 2020)

Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m2942

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

Can Coffee cause abortion ?

Yes, it can .

Coffee can harm pregnancy. Coffee can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, lower birth weight, and preterm birth.

Hence various guidelines do advise reduction in coffee consumption during pregnancy.

A recent study in BMJ group journal goes further and suggests avoiding coffee altogether during pregnancy.

There are caveats but those who want to be very cautious should consider avoiding coffee during pregnancy just like one avoids alcohol during pregnancy.

References

1. Guardian Newspaper. No safe level of coffee drinking for pregnant women, study says.

2. BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine. Jack James RT al. Reykjavik University

3. Independent newspaper. No safe level of caffeine consumption for pregnant women and would-be mothers, study suggests

4. World Health Organization. Restricting caffeine intake during pregnancy.

5. UK. Food Standards Agency. Assessment of caffeine consumption, altered caffeine metabolism and pregnancy outcome.

5. NICE. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. New recommended drinking guidelines welcomed by NICE.

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of drafting the blog and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

If you survive the Coronavirus, Can you get Coronavirus infection again ?

Yes, you can get infection again.

Last month, we had studies reporting that the immunity to Coronavirus fades quickly after recovering from an infection. The scientists have warned that re-infection is a risk.

Now, we have a case in Hong Kong where a patient seem to have been unlucky to get the infection again. It is a worrying report and suggests that coronavirus is going to be with us for a long time.

The only reassuring fact is that patient was free of symptoms during second infection. One has to hope that all re-infections are mild !

References

1. Sundar.blog. CAN YOU GET CORONAVIRUS INFECTION MORE THAN ONCE?

2. BBC. Hong Kong reports ‘first case’ of virus reinfection.

3. Clinical Infectious Diseases : report on twitter.

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of publication and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

Is weight loss a sign of cancer?

If you have been dieting and exercising to shed excess weight, then you can celebrate your success in achieving your goal.

But some poorly lose weight unintentionally . This type of weight loss that occurs without intention might be of concern in some people.

A recent article in BMJ advocates screening for cancer in some patients if they have weight loss and other symptoms in their chest and abdomen.

Male smokers over the age of 50 are one of the high risk groups !

Don’t ignore weight loss !

References

Prioritising primary care patients with unexpected weight loss for cancer investigation: diagnostic accuracy study

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2651 (Published 13 August 2020)

Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m2651

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of publication and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

Can Coronavirus linger in air, and cause COVID-19 by spreading through air ?

Normally many flu-like viruses spread by direct or close contact.

Because Virus containing droplets are heavier than air, scientifically it is thought that when someone coughs or sneezes, virus particles quickly fall to ground or surrounding objects.(“like a brick or stone falling to ground“).

But a group of scientists and WHO have raised the possibility that coronavirus can stay in air for longer periods, float around and cause more infections. (“float like a balloon“). This is called air-borne transmission.

What does it mean?

If confirmed– this means “closed spaces” are high risk even if you maintain 2 metre distance from an infected person. AVOID CLOSED SPACES.

As many people in UK do not wear masks in public places, there is a high chance of second wave of infections in the coming weeks as lock down is eased. WEAR A MASK.

It also means avoiding non-essential visitors to hospitals so that visitors cannot catch the infection or pass the infection to vulnerable patients. AVOID NON-ESSENTIAL VISITORS AT HOSPITALS.

If air borne transmission is confirmed, it is also bad news for the coming winter.

If Coronavirus is still in community and not eliminated by winter, air-borne transmission is likely to result in further wave of infections.

This is because Winter means more closed spaces and more chance of infection !!!!!!

STAY SAFE

References

1. Daily Mail Newspaper. Group of 239 scientists demand that WHO admit coronavirus is AIRBORNE -meaning the public should wear masks indoors and AC units should be fitted with filters .By Ariel Zilber For Dailymail.com and Reuters and Associated Press. 17:44, 05 Jul 2020 , updated 08:14, 06 Jul 2020

2. Guardian Newspaper. WHO underplaying risk of airborne spread of Covid-19, say scientists. Open letter says there is emerging evidence of potential for aerosol transmission. Hannah Devlin. Science correspondent. @hannahdev

3. Guardian Newspaper. Coronavirus outbreak Global report: WHO says ‘evidence emerging’ of airborne coronavirus spread. Martin Farrer and agencies.

4. BBC News. Coronavirus: WHO rethinking how Covid-19 spreads in air.

5. It is Time to Address Airborne Transmission of COVID-19. Lidia Morawska, Donald K Milton. Clinical Infectious Diseases, ciaa939, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa939. Published: 06 July 2020

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of publication and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

Can Vitamin D prevent respiratory infections such as COVID-19 ?

No conclusive evidence yet.

Some studies suggest a protective effect but two recent “official” reviews in UK has concluded the following.

(1). “The available evidence does not support vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections in the general UK population”.

(2). “There is currently no evidence to support vitamin D supplements reducing the risk or severity of covid-19″.

References

NICE. Covid 19 rapid evidence summary: vitamin D for covid-19 evidence summary. 29 June 2020. http://www.nice.org.uk/advice/es28/chapter/Key-messages.

Martineau AR, Jolliffe DA, Hooper RL, et al. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. BMJ 2017;356:i6583. doi:10.1136/bmj.i6583 pmid:28202713

Evidence does not support vitamin D for reducing respiratory infections, reviews conclude. BMJ 2020; 369 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2629 (Published 30 June 2020). Cite this as: BMJ 2020;369:m2629

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of publication and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

Health effects of vitamin and mineral supplements

In Western countries, upto two thirds of people take vitamin and mineral supplements regularly.

Many people think it’s common sense to take supplements. Many people don’t realise mega doses of vitamins can cause harm. Paradoxically the people who don’t have a healthy diet are less likely to supplements than those who have a well balanced diet.

A recent article in BMJ reviews the evidence regarding “Health effects of vitamin and mineral supplements” and concludes that “Randomised trial evidence does not support use of vitamin, mineral, and fish oil supplements to reduce the risk of non-communicable diseases”.

This article is certainly a “food for thought”

Reference

Food for Thought 2020. Health effects of vitamin and mineral supplements. BMJ 2020; 369 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2511 (Published 29 June 2020). Cite this as: BMJ 2020;369:m2511

Skeie G, Braaten T, Hjartåker A, et al. Use of dietary supplements in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition calibration study. Eur J Clin Nutr2009;63(Suppl 4):S226-38. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2009.83 pmid:19888276

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of publication and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

New medication for prostate cancer

The Male hormone- Testosterone feeds the prostate cancer. Shutting down testosterone production in men can help to control prostate cancer.

Advanced prostate cancer is currently treated first by regular hormone injections.

The hormone injections reduce the Testosterone in men.

Now a new medication, called Relugolix, has been successfully tested in clinical trials. Relugolix, unlike other first line hormone injections , can be taken by mouth instead.

Relugolix also has the advantage of not only working rapidly but also has the advantage of stopping to work quickly when it is withdrawn. This is unlike the injections which take a while to work but also do not stop working quickly when injections are stopped.

References

NEJM. Oral Relugolix for Androgen-Deprivation Therapy in Advanced Prostate Cancer

Neal D Shore et al. N Engl J Med. 2020.

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of publication and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

Can Vitamin K help fight Coronavirus?

Possible but like every other observational study, take it with pinch of salt.

Further evidence from well conducted trials are needed before it can be recommended as a COVID treatment.

In mean time, it’s better to stick to natural sources of vitamin such as those mentioned in the newspaper article ( spinach, broccoli, green vegetables, blueberries, all types of fruit and vegetables).

Guardian Newspaper: Vitamin K could help fight coronavirus, study suggests

Scientists in Netherlands explore possible link between deficiency and Covid-19 deaths

Daniel Boffey. Fri 5 Jun 2020 14.50 BST

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of publication and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

Cancer and COVID-19

Coronavirus infection seems to be more deadly in patients whose immune systems are not functioning very well.

So cancer patients who have reduced immunity due to chemotherapy are understandably at higher risk of death.

Among cancer patients, those patients whose cancer is progressing ( i.e cancer not under control ) seem to at even more from COVID-19.

A study presented at the ASCO ( American Society of Clinical Oncology) reports that ” after a COVID-19 diagnosis, patients with progressing cancer were found to be 5.2 times more likely to die within 30 days”.

So stay safe and consider shielding if your cancer is not under control .

Furthermore, there is lot of interest in use of Chloroquine, an anti-malaria drug for treatment of COVID-19. The study reports that “Treatment with the drug combination hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin was also strongly associated with greater risk of death”. So best to avoid unproven treatments outside a trial setting.

References

1. ASCO News. Early Data Show Cancer Progression Associated With Increased Risk of Death in Patients With COVID-19. May 28, 2020.

2. ASCO News. Chemo Within 3 Months of COVID-19 Diagnosis Associated With an Increased Risk of Death in Patients With Thoracic Cancer. May 2020.

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of publication and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views are not substitute for professional advice.

Face Masks: Should Public wear face masks because of Corona Virus pandemic ?

Should Public wear face masks because of Corona Virus pandemic ?

Yes.

In some of the Asian Countries there has been universal acceptance of face masks even before Corona Virus pandemic. Hence, it is not surprising that there is wide spread use of face masks during this pandemic .

In USA, after initial hesitation, CDC now recommends use of cloth face masks by public.

In Germany, many states have made face masks compulsory.

In UK, there has been no official recommendation about widespread use of face masks.

With so many unknowns, it is prudent to follow the advice published in British Medical Journal : WEAR A MASK !!

References

1. USA CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/diy-cloth-face-coverings.html

2 Germany: BBC news. Coronavirus: Germany’s states make face masks compulsory. 22 April 2020. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-52382196

3. TIME Magazine. https://time.com/5815251/should-you-wear-a-mask-coronavirus/

4. BMJ paper. Analysis. Face masks for the public during the covid-19 crisis. BMJ 2020; 369 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1435 (Published 09 April 2020). Cite this as: BMJ 2020;369:m1435

5. BMJ editorial. Editorial. Covid-19: should the public wear face masks?. Editorials. Covid-19: should the public wear face masks? BMJ 2020; 369 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1442 (Published 09 April 2020). Cite this as: BMJ 2020;369:m1442

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Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only and do check the the sources where cited. Please consult your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant to you.

The views expressed in this blog represent the author’s views held at the time of publication and is likely to change overtime, particularly when new evidence comes to light. The blog is not necessarily endorsed by any organisation the author is associated with and views expressed are not substitute for professional advice.

Does air pollution in cities make your jogging and walking less beneficial ?

Yes, air pollution is now being recognised as an important cause of death in major cities and towns.

So avoid major roads and very busy streets.

Any benefit you might accrue from exercise can be wiped out by heavy air pollution if you are jogging on a heavily congested road.

References

1. Telegraph: Pollution wipes out the benefits of exercise, study suggests

2. BMJ . Air pollution. Short term exposure to fine particulate matter and hospital admission risks and costs in the Medicare population: time stratified, case crossover study

BMJ 2019; 367 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l6258 (Published 27 November 2019)

3. Telegraph. Does exercising in pollution do you more harm than good?

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only. See your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant for you.

Acupuncture for Migraine

Can Acupuncture help migraines?

Yes, says a Chinese trial published in British Medical Journal .

Many complementary and Alternative therapies have very thin evidence base ( if all present ).

The researchers are to be congratulated for doing a randomised trial and publishing results in a peer reviewed medical journal

References

Manual acupuncture versus sham acupuncture and usual care for prophylaxis of episodic migraine without aura: multicentre, randomised clinical trial

BMJ 2020; 368 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m697 (Published 25 March 2020)

Cite this as: BMJ 2020;368:m697

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only. See your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant for you.

Is it worthwhile to be on constant vigilance for any symptoms which might indicate cancer has come back ?

Unfortunately no.

A Cancer charity advices to watch out for symptoms.

Constant Vigilance for cancer recurrence has its own downsides.

After successful cancer treatment, being on look out for symptoms constantly wrecks your quality of life for minimal benefit in most cases.

Many trials of intensive screening shown no benefit for early detection of secondary cancer. ( note- this is different from the ongoing debate about benefits of primary cancer detection with cancer screening programs such as Mammograms, PSA screening, bowel cancer screening).

Cancer patients are quite often aware of own body and pre-existing aches and pains.

The best thing is to act promptly if there are “any new and persistent symptoms” . For vast majority of cancer patients, there is no need to do a frequent check list of possible symptoms, on a daily or weekly interval.

Do NOT be on constant vigilance for all possible cancer symptoms unless you have been specifically advised to do so by your oncology team.

Eternal Vigilance for months and years can wreck your quality of life.

Think Positive. Nothing is lost when you maintain hope.

References

BBC news . https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-49999404

‘Unacceptable’ delays in diagnosing secondary breast cancer

The standard disclaimer is very relevant to this blog.

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only. See your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant for you.

Blaming the tools

Tools

Any one from any trade would be expected to use the tools of the trade appropriately.

Tweaking the tools unnecessarily or blaming the tools if things do not pan out as planned is generally frowned upon .

Same with medical professionals !

Please contribute your thoughts at BMJ rapid response page.

Interpreting test results: dont blame the tools

Access the article at: http://bmj.com/cgi/content/full/bmj.m1162

Toll-free link:
http://bmj.com/cgi/content/full/bmj.m1162?ijkey=sZarWS4YlJf9NS0&keytype=ref

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only. See your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant for you.

Plain English Medical Letters to Patients

Writing letters to patients in plain English without medical jargon is a gift that only a few doctors possess.

Personalising complex medical terminology in a letter dictated over a few minutes is NOT an inherent skill possessed by many doctors including those who are native English speakers.

Dictating Plain English medical letters would take considerable time and effort – particularly if letters are going to succinctly summarise everything from a medical consultation.

In UK, with regards to Cancer, we are lucky to have cancer charities who do a good job of providing information in plain English ( E.g Cancer Research UK, Macmillan Cancer Support, Prostate Cancer UK).

Cancer Patients in UK also have the support of Cancer Nurse Specialists ( CNS ) who do a fantastic job of guiding patients through their cancer journey and clarify all medical jargon to patients.

Other specialities might not have the resources that are available to cancer patients. But, on the whole, Clinic Time slots are precious. Many UK specialists have long waiting lists.

So if further time and effort is to be expended in busy clinics for dictating plain English Letters – in addition to the usual Medical letters to GP – good clinical evidence is needed to demonstrate that separate plain English letters do benefit patients in a meaningful way.

Please do read the BMJ article and put forward your views in the rapid response section.

Access the article at: http://bmj.com/cgi/content/full/bmj.m949

Toll-free link:
http://bmj.com/cgi/content/full/bmj.m949?ijkey=nxJ9CdIVHKZW1Jd&keytype=ref

Disclaimer:

The views expressed here are my personal views and do not represent the views of any other professional organisation I am associated with…

Walking is good exercise

New year. January. First month of a New year – it’s the time of year many people take a look at their lifestyle and vow to eat better, exercise better and live better.

Many people consider Gym or Health Club membership.

But Exercise doesn’t need to cost a lot. Being active, doesn’t need to be regimented.

Simply walking anywhere is good compared to no exercise at all. Walking in the Park or Quiet streets has lot of benefits.

Good article in BBC on the benefits of walking.

A word of caution though !

Avoid Walking or Jogging near busy roads so that the benefits of walking are not negated by pollution.

Reference

1. BBC. 8 reasons why we should all walk more. BBC.

2. Guardian. Traffic fumes in city streets ‘largely wipe out exercise benefits for over-60s’.

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only. See your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant for you.

Exciting new immunotherapy treatment !

Test tube lab

The holy grail of cancer treatment is design a drug that is highly lethal to cancerous tissue but completely spares the normal tissues.

Scientists at Cardiff University have discovered immune cells which could provide such a clever treatment.

It is still early days. The principle has been proven in lab. But to be a useful treatment that can be used in cancer patients, it is still far off.

This particular novel form of immunotherapy using T cells is still in early stages and so many hurdles have to be overcome before this discovery could be employed in cancer treatment.

Nevertheless, it has certainly excited many researchers in the field of cancer and the paper has been published by a premier scientific journal.

 

References:

Original scientific paper. Genome-wide CRISPR–Cas9 screening reveals ubiquitous T cell cancer targeting via the monomorphic MHC class I-related protein MR1

BBC news. Immune discovery ‘may treat all cancer’. By James Gallagher. Health and science correspondent

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only. See your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant for you.

Futile antibiotic treatments

Infections are normally highly treatable with antibiotics.

But when someone is dying , the body’s immune system gets weaker. Hence infections quite often occur as part of the dying process.

Treating these infections are often futile. But human nature is inclined to “fight and survive” by all means. So quite often powerful antibiotics are used to treat these infections in dying patients.

There is an ethical argument against futile treatments.

There is also the risk of antibiotic resistance in general population if antibiotics are used inappropriately.

Submit your views at BMJ journal website (rapid response section).

References

Access the article at: http://bmj.com/cgi/content/full/bmj.l6706

Toll-free link:

http://bmj.com/cgi/content/full/bmj.l6706?ijkey=ZXN1zz6QXpPz8np&keytype=ref

Can long working hours kill you?

Yes, it can.

It has been well established by systemic review that working long hours can lead to excessive heart attacks. ( ref 1).

A recent French study indicates that working long hours can lead to increased risk of stroke ( Long hours defined as more than 10 hours on at least 50 days per year in this study) (ref 2).

So look after yourself and don’t push yourself too hard !

References

1. Long Working Hours and Coronary Heart Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis .

2. Long working hours ‘linked to stroke risk’ BBC News.

“Think Positive “ and live longer !

People with sunny disposition seems to live longer.

Having a positive outlook on life seems to protect heart.

Is it a case of “chicken vs egg” in that what came first. Do healthy people have a optimistic outlook and pessimistic people have lot of social, personal and health problems. Do life problems make people pessimistic or being optimistic makes one do better?

Researchers have adjusted the data for confounding factors. Evidence so far is very intriguing.

And the next question is – can one learn to be optimistic, change personality and have beneficial health effects. We don’t know at present.

References

1. Guardian. Optimists have lower risk of heart problems and early death.

2. Guardian. Optimism may hold secret to longer life, study suggests.

3. The association of optimism and pessimism with inflammation and hemostasis in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

4. JAMA. Association of Optimism With Cardiovascular Events and All-Cause Mortality

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only. See your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant for you.

Veliparib : Another new drug for treatment of Ovarian Cancer

Veliparib trial data has certainly brought more options to the table in treatment of advanced Ovarian cancer.

Trial data presented at ESMO congress at Barcelona shows that first line therapy with Veliparib is beneficial.

Acknowledgement: Copyright of Slides: Authors and ESMO

References

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only. See your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant for you.

New drug combination for Ovarian Cancer (Olaparib and Bevacizumab)

New trial data presented at the ESMO cancer Congress 2019 in Barcelona, Spain, show excellent results for the combination of Olaparib and Bevacizumab. The combination looks likely to become standard of care in at-least a subgroup of patients.

The expert discussing the trial data did raise the possibility that most benefit seems to come from Olaparib in patients with BRCA mutations and whether Olaparib alone instead combination is enough for this group. More data is awaited.

References

1. ESMO 2019 congress press release. Ovarian Cancer: More Women Benefit from Maintenance Combined Targeted Therapy [ESMO 2019 Press Release]

Acknowledgement: Copyright of Slides: Authors and ESMO

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only. See your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant for you.

Niraparib : New treatment for new diagnosed Ovarian Cancer

A landmark study presented at ESMO congress at Barcelona shows significant benefits for maintenance treatment with the drug Niraparib.

Niraparib is likely to become a standard treatment in a much more widely group of advanced ovarian cancer patients.

Many clinicians will be weighing up Niraparib Vs Olaparib in Some patients and Niraparib vs Bevacizumab in other groups of patients.

Reference

1. Niraparib Prolongs PFS in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Advanced Ovarian Cancer. ESMO press release.

Acknowledgement: Copyright of Slides: Authors and ESMO

Melanoma Skin cancers: significant improvement in life expectancy with immunotherapy

Advanced melanoma skin cancers used to carry a dismal prognosis.

Data presented at Barcelona European Cancer Congress ( ESMO) shows the prognosis has improved remarkably in the recent years.

Fifty percent of patients are now alive for at-least five years. It is quite a remarkable achievement for immunotherapy.

References

1. ESMO press release. One in Two Patients with Metastatic Melanoma Alive after Five Years with Combination Immunotherapy [ESMO 2019 Press Release].

2.BBC News. Skin cancer: Half of people surviving advanced melanoma. By James Gallagher. Health and science correspondent, BBC News

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only. See your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant for you.

Exercise: Anything is better than nothing

Many people put off exercise thinking it needs to be a planned activity with time allocated for it.

A paper published in British Medical Journal ( BMJ) reports that any exercise is good and contributes to good health compared to no exercise

The recent UK guidelines also advises to “clock up few minutes at a time” whenever and wherever you can. (UK Chief Medical Officer).

You don’t need to run a marathon or join a running group. Just taking the stairs rather the lift would be good.

References

1. Guardian. Even a few minutes’ exercise is good for you, new guidelines state.

2. BMJ. British Medical Journal. Dose-response associations between accelerometry measured physical activity and sedentary time and all cause mortality: systematic review and harmonised meta-analysis

BMJ 2019; 366 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l4570 (Published 21 August 2019)

Cite this as: BMJ 2019;366:l4570

3. Daily Telegraph. No such thing as too little exercise, says Chief Medical Officer, as ten minute minimum is scrapped.

4. BBC news. Strengthen muscles as well as heart to stay fit and healthy, say top doctors

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only. See your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant for you.

Celery Juice: Super Juice ?

Why Celery Juice is popular now?

Every year some type of food or fruit trends on the social media after being hyped by celebrities and Influencers.

Unfortunately, it seems Celery Juice is trending now.

Just because something is endorsed with good intentions by well meaning people doesn’t mean you have to blindly believe them.

Read the BBC news article for a balanced account .

Reference

1. Celery Juice: The big problem with a viral Instagram ‘cure. BBC news.

Is Vegan diet the most healthy ? Are there any risks from Vegetarian diet?

Life would be very simple if we can have clear cut answers with regards to the best diet for everyone’s health.

A recent study published in BMJ indicates that while Vegan diet reduces risk of heart problems it can increase the risk of strokes.

The results might seem confusing and scientists would be certainly seeking more answers. But don’t be surprised if another study from some other research group comes up with a contradictory result. That’s normal in science.

What’s most important is to realise that there are no easy scientific answers to most scientific questions. Research quite often shows unexpected results. What is a logical scientific question quite often throws up unexpected answers.

Overall, the message is “have a well balanced diet” without omitting essential nutrients.

References

1. BBC news. Plant-based diets ‘linked to higher stroke risk‘ Vegan and vegetarian diets ‘link to higher stroke risk’ Sept 2019.

2. BMJ. British Medical Journal.

Risks of ischaemic heart disease and stroke in meat eaters, fish eaters, and vegetarians over 18 years of follow-up: results from the prospective EPIC-Oxford study

BMJ 2019; 366 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l4897 (Published 04 September 2019)

Disclaimer: Please note- This blog is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only. See your own doctor to discuss concerns and options relevant for you.

Does Cranberry juice relieve bladder symptoms due to radiation cystitis?

bowl of red round fruits

Many people do look for natural remedies to help with their symptoms.

Anectodally, many patients undergoing radiotherapy have reported that Cranberry Juice has eased their radiation cystitis symptoms.

What is the scientific evidence behind it ?

Should all patients having cystitis symptoms during radiotherapy take cranberry juice?

There is certainly scientific basis to expect benefit from Cranberry Juice.(1).

A lab study and a volunteer study (with volunteers from Japan, Hungary, Spain and France) has shown that certain chemicals in Cranberry can make bacteria ‘less sticky‘ to urinary tract walls and hence potentially reduces virulence of the bacteria.(1). But subsequent large studies have NOT confirmed any large benefit from Cranberry in terms of treating or preventing urinary tract infections. (2)(3).

But Radiation Cystitis is not due to bacterial infections although infections can co-exist sometimes. Hence the use of Cranberry has been studied separately in patients undergoing radiation therapy.

A New Zealand study involved 41 men undergoing radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Taking Cranberry (one capsule a day at breakfast) was found to reduce symptoms of pain and burning. (4).

On the other hand, in a study from Canada involving 112 patients , consumption of Cranberry juice compared with apple juice had no effect on radiation cystitis symptoms. (5).

Another study from United Kingdom was inconclusive because of poor patient recruitment and poor compliance. (6).

So the scientific evidence is inconclusive at present.(7).

Practically, if someone is keen to try it – the best course of action – ( for someone not intolerant of cranberry juice) – is to try it and see whether it offers any symptomatic benefit .

Disclaimer: Please note- This is NOT medical advice. This blog is purely for information only. See your own doctor to discuss options.

There are prescription medications available to help with radiation cystitis symptoms.

References:

1.Dosage effect on uropathogenic Escherichia coli anti-adhesion activity in urine following consumption of cranberry powder standardized for proanthocyanidin content: a multicentric randomized double blind study. BMC Infect Dis. 2010 Apr 14;10:94.

2. BBC News. Does Cranberry juice stop cystitis. By Claudia Hammond. (Accessed 1st Jan 2019).

3. BBC News. Ditch cranberry juice for urine infection . (Accessed 1st Jan 2019).

4.Standardized cranberry capsules for radiation cystitis in prostate cancer patients in New Zealand: a randomized double blinded, placebo controlled pilot study. Support Care Cancer (2015) 23: 95.

5. A Randomised Trial of Cranberry Versus Apple Juice in the Management of Urinary Symptoms During External Beam Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer. G.Campbell et al. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2003 Sep;15(6):322-8.

6. A Randomised Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial to Determine the Effect of Cranberry Juice on Decreasing the Incidence of Urinary Symptoms and Urinary Tract Infections in Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy for Cancer of the Bladder or Cervix. Cowan CC, et al. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2012.

7.Chemical- and radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis: current treatments and challenges. BJU Int. 2013 Nov;112(7):885-97.

Image credit: Photo by Jessica Lewis on Pexels.com

www.sundar.blog

 

stetchscope pen laptop

Hi,

This blog will be a commentary on health related news with particular focus on clinical studies involving the cancers I treat. (my profile: https://sundar.uk ).

Disclaimers first:

  1. This blog cannot provide personal medical advice. Medicine is incredibly complex and nothing is absolute, and everything depends on individual circumstances. So always consult your own oncologist.
  2. Remember modern medicine is ever changing and the “only thing that is permanent is change itself”. That’s why new evidence sometimes completely contradicts conventional wisdom and practice.  Don’t be surprised if scientific studies contradict each other.
  3. To avoid anyone inadvertently disclosing personal or confidential information, comments will be disabled.
  4. The views expressed here are strictly personal and the views do not in any way whatsoever reflect the views or policies of the many professional organisations I am associated with.

Sundar

www.sundar.blog